Graduated from Smith College in 1902.
Zilphia L. Ingraham was born in 1873 at Sullivan, daughter of Lendeal Ingraham + Elizabeth Lashel. The 1880 census showed her living in Sullivan with her parents. He married Ellsworth Biggs at Sullivan in 1895. Her father died in 1888. The 1900 census showed her to be 25 years of age and living at Elyria at 503 West River Road with her husband and mother. Her mother died in 1913. The 1920 census indicated her to be living at 129 Glendale Court where she remained for another 25 years until her death in 1945. (Source: Brøderbund WFT Vol. 8, Ed. 1, Tree #0278, Date of Import: 9 Oct 1999]spouse: >Biggs, Ellsworth Lincoln (1871 - 1935)
Isabella I (1451-1504), queen of Castile, called la Católica ("the Catholic"), and a sponsor of the voyages of Christopher Columbus. She was the daughter of John II of Castile and León by his second wife, Isabella of Portugal. In 1469 Princess Isabella married Ferdinand of Aragón, known also as Ferdinand V, the Catholic. On the death of her brother, Henry IV, Isabella and Ferdinand jointly succeeded (1474) to the throne of Castile and León. Isabella's succession was contested, however, by Alfonso V of Portugal, who supported the claim of Henry's daughter Juana la Beltraneja. Alfonso attacked Castile and León but was defeated by the Castilian army in 1476. Three years later Ferdinand succeeded to the throne of Aragón.spouse: >Ferdinand, ? V, King of Spain (1452 - 1516)
This union of the two main Spanish kingdoms laid the foundation of Spain's future greatness. They had five children, including Catherine of Aragon, the first wife of Henry VIII of England, and Joanna the Mad, who was the mother of Charles V, king of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor. Isabella and her husband (known together as "the Catholic kings") are remembered for initiating the Inquisition in 1478, for completing the reconquest of Spain from the Moors and for their ruthless expulsion of the Spanish Jews, both in 1492. That same year they sponsored Christopher Columbus's voyage, which led to the creation of the overseas Spanish colonial empire, bringing great wealth and power to Spain.
James I (of England) (1566-1625), king of England (1603-25) and, as James VI, king of Scotland (1567-1625).spouse: >Denmark, Anne of (1574 - 1619)
Born on June 19, 1566, in Edinburgh Castle, Scotland, James was the only son of Mary, queen of Scots, and her second husband, Lord Darnley. When Mary was forced to abdicate in 1567, he was proclaimed king of Scotland. A succession of regents ruled the kingdom until 1576, when James became nominal ruler. The boy king was little more than a puppet in the hands of political intriguers until 1581. In that year, with the aid of his favorites, James Stuart, earl of Arran, and Esmé Stuart, duke of Lennox, James assumed actual rule of Scotland. Scotland was at that time divided domestically by conflict between the Protestants and the Roman Catholics, and in foreign affairs by those favoring an alliance with France and those supporting England. In 1582 James was kidnapped by a group of Protestant nobles headed by William Ruthven, earl of Gowrie, and was held virtual prisoner until he escaped the next year.
In 1586, by the Treaty of Berwick, James formed an alliance with his cousin, Queen Elizabeth I of England, and the following year, after the execution of his mother, he succeeded in reducing the power of the great Roman Catholic nobles. His marriage to Anne of Denmark in 1589 brought him for a time into close relationship with the Protestants. He had six children: Henry, Frederick (died 1612), Elizabeth, Margaret (died young), Charles, Robert, Mary and Sophia. After the Gowrie conspiracy of 1600, James repressed the Protestants as strongly as he had the Catholics. He replaced the feudal power of the nobility with a strong central government, and maintaining the divine right of kings, he enforced the superiority of the state over the church.
In 1603 Queen Elizabeth died childless, and James succeeded her as James I, the first Stuart king of England. In 1604 he ended England's war with Spain, but his tactless attitude toward Parliament, based on his belief in divine right, led to prolonged conflict with that body. James convoked the Hampton Court Conference (1604), at which he authorized a new translation of the Bible, generally called the King James Version. His undue severity toward Roman Catholics, however, led to the abortive Gunpowder Plot in 1605. James tried unsuccessfully to advance the cause of religious peace in Europe, giving his daughter Elizabeth in marriage to the elector of the Palatinate, Frederick V, the leader of the German Protestants. He also sought to end the conflict by attempting to arrange a marriage between his son, Charles, and the infanta of Spain, then the principal Catholic power. When he was rebuffed, he formed an alliance with France and declared war on Spain, thus contributing to the flames he had tried to quench. James I died at the Theobalds in Hertfordshire on March 27, 1625, and was succeeded to the throne by his son, Charles I.
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James I (of Scotland) (1394-1437), king of Scotland (1406-1437), only surviving son of King Robert III, born in Dunfermline. In 1406, shortly before the death of his father, James was sent to France for safety from rebellious Scottish nobles. The ship was seized by the English, and James was kept a prisoner until 1423. Having inherited the Scottish throne in 1406, James was crowned king when he returned to Scotland in 1424. He married Joan Beaufort, niece of the English king Richard II, and granddaughter of John of Gaunt. He had been married upon his release from London. His bride, Joan Beaufort gifted him with nine children; Margaret, Alexander, James, Isabella, Joan, Eleanora, Mary and Annabella.spouse: >Beaufort, Joan (~1398 - 1445)
By 1429 James had forced the Scottish nobles to submit to royal authority. He tried to improve the administration of justice and for the first time published parliamentary acts in the language of the common people. He angered the papacy by preventing church revenues from being sent to Rome. He formed a closer alliance with France and gave his eldest daughter, Margaret, in marriage to the Dauphin, later King Louis XI. James, however, had antagonized the Scottish nobles by confiscating their estates, and he was assassinated in 1437 by a group of nobles. He was succeeded by his son James II.
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James II (of England and Ireland) (1633-1701), king of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1685-1688).spouse: >Hyde, Anne (1637 - 1671)
James was born in London, the second surviving son of King Charles I and his consort, Henrietta Maria. He was created duke of York and Albany in 1634. After the execution of his father, he was taken to the Continent, and in 1657 he entered the Spanish service in the war against England. At the restoration of the monarchy in 1660, his brother became king as Charles II, and James was made lord high admiral of England. That year he married Anne Hyde, daughter of Edward Hyde, earl of Clarendon. In 1672, a year after Anne's death, James publicly professed his conversion to the Roman Catholic faith. The next year the English Parliament passed the Test Acts disqualifying Catholics from holding office, and James resigned as lord high admiral. Shortly after, he married Mary Beatrice of Modena, a Roman Catholic. In 1679 the House of Commons unsuccessfully attempted to bar James from the throne.
On the death of Charles in 1685, James became king. In the same year he crushed a revolt in England by his nephew, James Scott, duke of Monmouth, and another in Scotland led by Archibald Campbell, 9th earl of Argyll. James alienated many supporters by his severe reprisals, especially by a series of repressive trials, the Bloody Assizes. James attempted to win the support of the Dissenters and the Roman Catholics in 1687 by ending religious restrictions, but instead increased the religious tensions. The birth of his son, James Francis Edward Stuart, on June 10, 1688, seemed to ensure a Roman Catholic succession. James' opponents were against the Roman Catholic succession and asked William of Orange, later William III, to take the English throne, thus touching off the Glorious Revolution. The Glorious Revolution was successful and bloodless; it created a constitutional monarchy aimed at limiting the arbitrary actions of the monarch and increasing the power of Parliament. William landed in England in November 1688 and marched on London. He was hailed as a deliverer, and James, deserted by his troops, fled to France, where he was aided by King Louis XIV. In 1690, with a small body of French troops, James landed in Ireland in an attempt to regain his throne. He was defeated in the Battle of the Boyne and returned to France, where he remained in Saint-Germain-en-Laye until his death. After James was forced into exile, William and his wife, Mary II, ruled England as joint sovereigns.
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James II (of Scotland) (1430-60), king of Scotland (1437-60), son of King James I, born in Edinburgh. Like many of his predecessors James II came to the throne at an early age. He was one of twins, with his brother Alexander dying in infancy. He was crowned shortly after the murder of his father in 1437. A regency led by the Douglas family ruled until 1449, when James began to govern by himself. His efforts to promote social welfare were greatly obstructed by the nobles, especially by William, 8th earl of Douglas, who was involved in treason and who was stabbed to death by the king. James crushed a revolt of the Douglas family in 1452 and seized their estates. He then became entangled in the Wars of the Roses, a contest between the houses of York and Lancaster for the English throne. In 1460, at the head of an army, he was killed during the siege of Roxburgh Castle in Scotland. He was succeeded as king by his son James III.spouse: >Gueldres, Mary of (>1430 - 1463)
James was married once, to the daughter of the Duke of Guelders. She gave him six children; James, Alexander, David, John, Mary and Margaret.
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James III (1451-88), king of Scotland (1460-88), son of King James II, born in Stirling. He was crowned king in 1460 after the death of his father. A regency ruled until 1469, when he began his personal rule. Through his marriage to Margaret of Denmark in the same year, James gained control of the Orkney and Shetland islands. James was unpopular with the Scottish nobles, who were led by his brother Alexander Stewart, duke of Albany. The nobles seized the king and kept him prisoner in the castle at Edinburgh. Under the duke of Albany, English forces took Berwick and advanced to Edinburgh. In 1487, James made peace with the English, thereby further alienating his turbulent nobles, who rose in rebellion and induced James's son, later James IV, to become their nominal head. In the ensuing battle at Sauchieburn between the nobles and the Royalists, James was defeated, and he was murdered after the battle by an assassin dressed in the garb of a priest. His marriage to Margaret was blessed with the births of James, James and John. He was succeeded by James IV.spouse: >Denmark, Margaret of (~1457 - 1486)
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James IV (1473-1513), king of Scotland (1488-1513), who unified the country under his rule and, in spirit of the Renaissance, patronized arts and learning. He was the son of King James III. Within a few months after his accession he ended the revolt by Scottish nobles that had cost his father his life.spouse: >Tudor, Margaret Princess of England (1489 - 1541)
James expanded the Scottish navy, encouraged commerce, and reformed the administration of criminal justice. His romantic disposition induced him to support Perkin Warbeck, a claimant to the English throne, and to invade England in behalf of Warbeck in 1495. Two years later, however, a 7-year truce was concluded between Scotland and England. In 1503 James married Margaret Tudor, the eldest daughter of King Henry VII of England. This marriage eventually led to the union of the crowns of England and Scotland. James' marriage to Margaret Tudor brought six babies into the world, of which only two survived to a fruitful age; James and Alexander. After 1509, when Henry VIII became king of England, relations between the two countries became strained. Scotland was a traditional ally of France, and during Anglo-French hostilities in 1513 James invaded England in aid of his ally. Despite initial successes, he was plagued by desertions from his army, which was defeated at the Battle of Flodden on September 9, 1513. James himself was killed. He was succeeded by his son, James V.
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James V (1512-42), king of Scotland (1513-42), son of King James IV and Margaret Tudor, born in Linlithgow. He was 17 months old when his father was killed. His mother acted as regent until her marriage in 1514 to Archibald, 6th earl of Angus. In that year John Stewart, duke of Albany, became James's protector.spouse: >de Valois, Madeleine Princess of France (1520 - 1537)
In 1525, during the continued struggle for control of the country, James was taken prisoner by his stepfather. Three years later the king escaped and assumed control of Scotland. He instituted judicial reforms and took measures to protect the peasantry, by whom he was much admired. His uncle, Henry VIII, king of England, tried to induce James to repudiate the authority of the Roman Catholic church, but James refused, and relations between the two countries became strained. War broke out in 1542, and in November the Scottish force was routed at Solway Moss in northern England. Within a month James died. His second marriage, to Marie de Guise Lorraine, brought him three children. Unfortunately both James and Arthur died in infancy. He left one legitimate child, Mary, queen of Scots, who was six days old at his death.
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Jane Jennings descendant information was provided by her 2nd great granddaughter, Janice Louise (Allen) Bertram, Okamos, Michigan; E-mail: jlbertram@@geocities.com, April 1999)spouse: >Baney, John C. (1828 - 1902)
This descendant family branch if more fully documented on the web site: "The Family Page of Brent and Janice Allen Bertram" located at: "http://www.fortunecity.com/millenium/rockbridge/156/pathetiq.mid" and on the Brøderbund World Family Tree, Volume 15, Pedigree #37
John (of England), called John Lackland (1167-1216), King of England (1199-1216), best known for signing the Magna Carta.spouse: >Gloucester, Isabella of (>1167 - )
John was born in Oxford on December 24, 1167, the youngest son of King Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine. Henry provided for the eventual inheritance of his lands by his older sons before John was born. By 1186, however, only Richard I, the Lion-Hearted, and John were left as Henry's heirs. In 1189, as Henry neared death, John joined Richard's rebellion against their father, and when Richard was crowned, he gave John many estates and titles. John tried but failed to usurp the Crown while Richard was away on the Third Crusade. Upon returning to England, Richard forgave him. When his brother died in 1199, John became king. A revolt ensued by the supporters of Arthur of Brittany, the son of John's brother, Geoffrey. Arthur was defeated and captured in 1202, and John is believed to have had him murdered. King Philip II of France continued Arthur's war until John had to surrender nearly all his French possessions in 1204. In 1207 John refused to accept the election of Stephen Langton as archbishop of Canterbury. Pope Innocent III then excommunicated him and began negotiating with Philip for an invasion of England. Desperate, John surrendered England to the pope and in 1213 received it back as a fief. Trying to regain his French possession, he was decisively defeated by Philip in 1214. John's reign had become increasingly tyrannical; to support his wars he had extorted money, raised taxes, and confiscated properties. His barons finally united to force him to respect their rights and privileges. John had little choice but to sign the Magna Carta presented to him by his barons at Runnymede in 1215, making him subject, rather than superior, to the law. Shortly afterward John and the barons were at war.
He divorced his first wife after 10 childless years of marriage; the 34 year-old king soon after wed Isabella, the 12-year old daughter of Count Audemar of Angouleme; after John's death, Isabella wed the son of her first fiance. He died at Newark in Nottinghamshire on October 19, 1216, while still pursuing the campaign, and was succeeded by his son, Henry III.
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Judith married, as his second wife, (1) Ethelwulf, and upon his death in 858, married (2), her stepson, Æthelbald, and upon his death in 860, married (3) Baldwin I, Count of Flanders, as his second wife.spouse: >Æthelwulf, King of West Saxons (~0806 - 0857)
JOHN KEEP graduated from Yale University in 1769, and was settled in the ministry at Sheffield, Massachusetts, 10 Jun 1772. The married Hannah Rebecca Robbins, daughter of the Reverend Philemon Robbins, minister at Branford, Connecticut. He died without issue. (Source: Bement Chronicles in America, 1928, p. 77)spouse: >Robbins, Hannah Rebecca (~1748 - )
Had two children, died in infancy, names and gender unmown.spouse: >Lauterber, Josephine (~1862 - >1913)