He was connected with the Chicago + Alton Railroad, with residence at South Bend, Indiana.spouse: >Potter, Ada M. (1876 - >1913)
Jennette Fowler married Frederick William Sykes of Springfield, Massachusetts who was a shoemaker by trade. He was also somewhat wanted for his musical abilities while residing at Wooster, Ohio where he became an instructor of music. After he removed to Ashtabula he became an officer of the Baptist church and also Justice of the Peace. He was an active Christian man, and commanded the respect and esteem of his fellow townsmen. He died at his daughters home in Madison, Ohio. (Source: Arthur M. Sikes, Jr., Suffield, CT, March 1999)spouse: >Sykes, Frederick William (1807 - 1885)
John Fowler and his wife, Adaline, are buried in Genung Cemetery, Madison, Lake Co., OH.spouse: >Rawson, Adaline (>1829 - )
Oliver Fowler came to Ohio in 1837, taking up land in Lake County, near Madison, Ohio. He and his wife, Rebecca, are buried in Genung Cemetery, Madison, Lake Co., OH.spouse: >Smith, Rebecca (>1799 - )
Louis XII (1462-1515), king of France (1498-1515), son of Charles, duke of Orléans, born in Blois. Louis was imprisoned from 1487 to 1490 for rebellion against King Charles VIII of France. Louis was a popular king, and his financial and judicial reforms and the mildness of his rule earned him the epithet Father of the People. He led several armies in Italy, where he pursued a policy of French aggrandizement from 1499 until a coalition of powers compelled his withdrawal in 1513. He was succeeded by his son-in-law, Francis I.spouse: >Tudor, Mary (1498 - 1533)
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Francis I (of France) (1494-1547), king of France from 1515 to 1547, remembered for his rivalry with the Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, for his patronage of arts and letters, and for his governmental reforms.spouse: >
Born at Cognac, France, on September 12, 1494, Francis represented the Angoulême branch of the Valois dynasty, succeeding Louis XII, the last of the Orleanist branch, in 1515. His mother, Louise of Savoy, and his elder sister, Margaret of Navarre, influenced his upbringing and remained close to him during his reign. His first wife was Louis XII's daughter Claude.
The Valois-Habsburg Wars In 1515 Francis commanded a spectacular victory over the Swiss at Marignano, which enabled him to seize the Italian duchy of Milan. In 1519 he was a candidate for the throne of the Holy Roman Empire, but the imperial electors chose Charles of Habsburg instead. Francis then embarked on a war against Charles in Italy, but was defeated and captured at Pavia in 1525. Imprisoned in Spain, he was ransomed and returned to France in 1527. After another round of fighting, the two monarchs made peace in 1529, and Francis married the emperor's sister, Eleanor.
Further inconclusive wars were fought against the Habsburgs from 1536 to 1538 and from 1542 to 1544. In this period Francis, a Catholic, did not hesitate to ally himself with German Protestant princes and with Muslim Turks.
Religious and Financial Policies Under his sister's influence Francis was sympathetic to Protestantism, especially in its humanist form, when it appeared in France in the 1520s. In the 1530s, however, he abandoned his earlier tolerance and became a persecutor of the French Protestants. The king had concluded a concordat with the papacy at Bologna in 1516, thereby gaining greater control of the French Catholic church.
The cost of war obliged Francis to undertake extensive reforms. He floated government bonds, punished royal fiscal agents who misappropriated funds, and twice reorganized the treasury. He began to openly sell judicial and financial offices, creating a new class of ennobled magistrates, which remained an important element in French governmental and social structures until the French Revolution began in 1789. The traditional nobility served in his armies and sought to secure the patronage of the king or his favorites among the magnates. In this way factions arose, and when the king died in 1547 his reign had lost much of its glamor.
Patronage of Art and Learning Francis adopted the pose of a chivalric king, the first gentleman of his kingdom, although his autocratic statecraft was imbued with a shrewd realism. His patronage of the arts was intended to augment the splendor of his court. He brought Leonardo da Vinci and other great Italian artists to France to design and ornament his châteaux. He employed the scholar Guillaume Budé in creating a royal library and in founding professorships of Greek, Latin, and Hebrew, which formed the nucleus of the later Collège de France. (Source: J.H.M. Salmon)
Francis II (of France) (1544-60), king of France (1559-60), born in Fontainebleau, the eldest son of Henry II. In 1558 Francis married Mary, queen of Scots. Francis was a mental and physical weakling and was dominated by François, duke of Guise, and Cardinal Charles of Lorraine, the uncles of his wife. These two men, who in effect were the rulers during Francis's brief reign, tried to repress the growing political power of the Protestants in France. His death ended the ascendancy of the Guises at court.spouse: >Mary, Queen of Scots (1542 - 1587)
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Jack R. Franklin died at sea on the U.S.S. Indianapolis during World War II when the ship was sunk by a Japanese submarine.
Frederick III (of Prussia) (1831-1888), king of Prussia and emperor of Germany from March 9 to June 15, 1888, and the son of Emperor William I. Frederick was born in Potsdam, Germany. When his father succeeded to the throne of Prussia in 1861, Frederick became Frederick William, crown prince of Prussia. Liberal in his political views, Frederick opposed the conservative policies of the German chancellor, Prince Otto von Bismarck. Although Frederick opposed war, he became commander of an army and led Prussian forces to victory over the Austrians at the Battle of Sadová (also known as Sadowa) in 1866, which terminated the Seven Weeks' War. During the Franco-Prussian War of 1870 and 1871, Frederick commanded the armies of the southern German states, participating in the Battle of Sedan and the siege of Paris, France.spouse: >Victoria, Princess Royal (1840 - 1901)
A man of learning and culture, Frederick patronized art and literature and encouraged the work of the royal museums. As Crown Prince Frederick William, he was genially called "Our Fritz" by the German people, most of whom anticipated with pleasure his accession to the throne. Frederick became ill, however, in 1887 and lived only three months after succeeding to the throne on his father's death in 1888. He was in turn succeeded by his son, William II.
After her husband Henry Edgar died she moved the rest of her family out to Oregon where her sister Anna lived. [Brøderbund WFT Vol. 13, Ed. 1, Tree #3328, Date of Import: 6 Oct 1999]spouse: >Delaney, Henry Edgar (1875 - 1938)
Marie is buried at Hope Cemetery in rural Manson, Calhoun Co., Iowa.spouse: >private
spouse: >Hunter, Hiram (1803 - 1889)
Original info from Barbara Rector. Obituary from Fennimore Times Review-2 Aug 1894, from Floyd Hazen: " Mrs. Elizabeth Hunter was born in PA in 1809 + came to WI with her husband, Hiram Hunter, in 1852, settling on a farm two miles north of Fennimore where they resided until 1889. Then selling their farm they moved to the village of Fennimore, where in short time, he died...After his death she made her home with her daughter Mrs. Maria Monteith. She gave her heart to God at the age of 17 + joined the Methodist Church. After coming to WI she united with the United Brethren Church + remained .... The deceased leaves many friends, eight children, four sons + four daughters; (9 chn. when Hiram died).... Funeral services were held at the Fennimore U.B. Church, July 23 1894." Additional info from Katherine Weaver.
Died in the spring of 1916 of tubercular meningitis.
The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem was a medieval Christian state comprising what is now Israel, as well as parts of Jordan and Lebanon, with its capital at Jerusalem. Established at the time of the First Crusade in 1099, it lasted until 1291. When Jerusalem was taken from the Muslims, on July 15, 1099, it became necessary for the Christian conquerors to establish some permanent rule for the Holy City and for such other conquests as Antioch (now Antakya, Turkey) and Edessa (now Urfa, Turkey). They adopted the feudal system of government, the only system they knew well. The French nobleman Godfrey of Bouillon, one of the leaders of the Crusade, was chosen to govern the kingdom as baron and defender of the Holy Sepulcher. The succession thereafter was not elective but hereditary. When Godfrey died, in 1100, he was succeeded by his brother, Baldwin I, who took the title of king and ruled until 1118. He in turn was succeeded by his cousin, Baldwin II, who was followed by his son-in-law, Fulk V the Young, count of Anjou. Under Fulk the kingdom reached the highest point in its development; most of Syria was then also in the hands of the Christians. In 1187 Muslim forces under Sultan Saladin reconquered the city of Jerusalem, but the Latin Kingdom persisted. The Crusaders regained the city in 1228 under Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II, who was crowned king of Jerusalem the following year. The Muslims retook Jerusalem in 1244 in the first of a series of victories for Islam that finally, with the reconquest of 'Akko in 1291, brought the Latin Kingdom to an end.spouse: >Maine, Erembourg of (>1092 - ~1126)
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William A. Gandy was raised by his mothers' younger sister and her husband, Martha and Adam Brown after the early deaths of his parents.
Vivian and Wilbur are both buried in Fairbank, Buchanan Co., Iowa.spouse: >Finch, Wilber Wilson (1890 - 1975)
Edward L. Garner had a total of seven children.spouse: >???, Elzora Gardner (1858 - )
Henry Watson Gardner was the oldest of seven children. See Gardner Family Tree, Brøderbund World Family Tree, Volume 3, Pedigree #2119 which traces the ancestors of Henry W. Gardner back to about 1850. This family is also researched on Brøderbund World Family Tree, Volume 15, Pedigree #2079 and traces the ancestors to Henry Garner in 1520.spouse: >Bement, Jennie Mae (1882 - )
John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster (1340-99), English soldier and statesman, the fourth son of King Edward III of England, and brother of Edward, the Black Prince. John was born in March 1340 in Ghent (M.E., Gaunt), now in Belgium. In 1359 he married Blanche, daughter of Henry, duke of Lancaster; when Henry died, John became duke.spouse: >Lancaster, Blanche of (>1340 - 1369)
John of Gaunt played an important part in the wars of the period between England and France and between England and Spain. He commanded a division of the English army, led by the Black Prince, that defeated the army of Henry (later Henry II, king of Castile and León) at Nájera in 1367. As a result of his second marriage, to Constance, daughter of Peter the Cruel (king of Castile and León), John laid claim to the throne of Castile. During the Hundred Years' War, he aided (1370-71) the Black Prince against France and established English rule over most of southern France. After a severe illness forced the return of the Black Prince to England, John took command of the English armies; by 1380 he had lost much of the territory the English had previously won. In 1386 John invaded Castile, but was defeated by John I, king of Castile and León. John of Gaunt gave up his claim to Castile and León in 1387, when his daughter married Henry, later Henry III, king of Castile and León.
John of Gaunt was also prominent in English affairs. Together with Alice Perrers, his father's mistress, John dominated the English government. He was opposed by Parliament and by the Black Prince. In 1376 Parliament banished Alice Perrers and curtailed John's powers. The death of the Black Prince that year and the dissolution of Parliament, however, enabled John to regain his power. In 1377, on the death of Edward III and the accession of Richard II (John's nephew and son of the Black Prince), John gave up his control of the government and thereafter played the role of peacemaker; he also supported the king, by whom he was made (1390) duke of Aquitaine. In 1396, after the death of his second wife, John married his mistress Catherine (Roet) Swynford, and Richard legitimized their children the following year. Saddened by the exile (1398) of his son, Henry of Lancaster (later King Henry IV of England), John died on February 3 of the following year.
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George I (of Great Britain) (1660-1727), king of Great Britain (1714-1727) and elector of Hannover (1698-1727), first of the Hannoverian line of British rulers.spouse: >Celle, Sophia Dorothea of (1666 - 1726)
George was born in Osnabrück, Hannover (now in Germany), the son of Ernest Augustus, elector of Hannover, and Sophia, granddaughter of King James I of England. George succeeded Queen Anne by the terms of the Act of Settlement. Thoroughly German in tastes and habits, he never learned the English language, and he made periodic lengthy visits to Hannover, which always remained his primary concern, despite his dutiful efforts to attend to his new kingdom's needs. He remained, however, unpopular in Britain, due in part to his private life. He divorced his wife in 1694 and kept her imprisoned in Hannover. When he came to England, he brought with him two mistresses who both became unpopular because of their greed. Supporters of the house of Stuart, known as the Jacobites, plotted to replace him with James II's son, James Edward Stuart, known as the Old Pretender but they were defeated in battle. George appointed only Whigs as his ministers and advisers, reasoning that the Tories were favorable to the Stuart cause. He took a keen interest in foreign affairs, and it was his judgment that made possible the formation in 1717 of the third Triple Alliance with the Netherlands and France. For domestic policies he relied on his ministers, James Stanhope, 1st earl Stanhope, Charles Townshend 2nd viscount Townshend of Raynham, and Robert Walpole, 1st earl of Orford. Their sound administrative skills strengthened the position of the house of Hannover in Great Britain. He was succeeded by his son, George II.
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George II (of Great Britain and Ireland) (1683-1760), king of Great Britain and Ireland (1727-60), and elector of Hannover (1727-60), the son of King George I.spouse: >Ansbach, Caroline of (1683 - 1737)
George was born at Herrenhausen Palace in Hannover (now in Lower Saxony state, Germany) on November 10, 1683, and he grew up a German prince. In 1705 he married Caroline of Ansbach, an intelligent woman who wielded great influence over her husband and thereby on government. Like his father, George II was more interested in Hannover than in Great Britain, and during his many absences from London Caroline frequently acted as regent. During the war of the Austrian Succession (1740-48), the king subordinated the interests of Great Britain to those of his German principality. This policy was unpopular in Great Britain, but the king won admiration for his courage at the Battle of Dettingen in Bavaria (1743), the last engagement in which a British monarch participated in person. George II contributed to the material progress of Great Britain, mainly because he was shrewd enough to listen to his wife and heed the advice of his ministers. He retained Sir Robert Walpole as chief minister only upon Caroline's insistence, and he later relied on Henry Pelham, and, toward the end of his reign, William Pitt the Elder, although he originally had a great dislike for him. George's reign was marked by the suppression of the last major Jacobite rebellion (see Jacobites) and by the successful prosecution-at Pitt's initiative-of the Seven Years' War. He was succeeded by his grandson George III. George died at Kensington Palace, London, on October 25, 1760.
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George III (1738-1820), king of Great Britain and Ireland (1760-1820), who presided over the loss of Britain's American colonies; he was also elector of Hannover (1760-1815) and, by decision of the Congress of Vienna, king of Hannover (1815-20).spouse: >Frederick, Charlotte (1744 - 1818)
George was born in London on June 4, 1738, the oldest son of Frederick Louis, prince of Wales, and the grandson of King George II. The first of the Hannoverian house to be born and educated as an Englishman, he was primarily interested in his royal prerogatives as king of Great Britain-in contradistinction to his two predecessors, to whom Hannover was the main concern. George's aim was to rule as well as reign, and he was a skillful and astute intriguer; by 1763 he had managed to regain many of the powers that strong Whig ministries had appropriated during the reigns of the first two Georges. His problem was that he lacked the self-confidence and the mature statesmanship to form and achieve any long-term policy. After the dismissal of several ministers who did not satisfy him, the king found a firm supporter in Frederick North, 2nd earl of Guilford, prime minister from 1770 to 1782. Lord North executed the royal policies that provoked the American Revolution. The unsuccessful conclusion of that protracted conflict forced North to resign, and during the government crisis that followed-when three cabinets came and went in less than two years-the king himself was almost induced to abdicate. He then took a political gamble by placing the government in the hands of the 24-year-old William Pitt, thereby restoring stability for the rest of the century. In line with his belief in royal authority, George favored the wars with France (1793-1815) that grew out of the French Revolution.
In 1809 the king became blind. As early as 1765 he had suffered an apparent dementia, and in 1788 his derangement recurred to such a degree that a regency bill was passed, but the king recovered the following year. It is now thought likely that he had inherited porphyria, a defect of the metabolism that may in time lead to delirium. In 1811 he succumbed hopelessly, and his son, later George IV, acted as regent for the rest of his reign. George III died at Windsor Palace on January 29, 1820. George III and Charlotte Frederick had a total of fifteen children.
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George IV (1762-1830), king of Great Britain and Ireland (1820-30), and king of Hannover (1820-30).spouse: >Fitzherbert, Maria Anne (>1762 - )
George was born in London on August 12, 1762, the eldest son of King George III. As prince of Wales, he became notorious for his profligacy and extravagance. Despite his father's strongly anti-Catholic views, he secretly married a Roman Catholic, Mrs. Maria Anne Fitzherbert, in 1785; less than two years later, to obtain money for his debts, he allowed Parliament to declare the marriage illegal, which in fact it was by the terms of acts governing royal marriages and succession. In 1795, again to liquidate his debts, he married his cousin, Caroline of Brunswick, but they became estranged after the birth of their daughter, Princess Charlotte, in 1796. His misconduct alienated the British people; when he tried to divorce Caroline, charging her with adultery, she was so enthusiastically supported by the London crowds that her trial had to be abandoned. His cleverness and gracious manners, however, gave him the name of "first gentleman of Europe." George became prince regent in 1811, when his father became mentally unable to discharge his duties, and succeeded to the throne in 1820. The outstanding event of his reign was the passage of the Catholic Emancipation Act, which the king opposed. George IV died at Windsor Palace on June 26, 1830, and was succeeded by his brother William IV.
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George V (1865-1936), king of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and emperor of India (1910-36), of the house of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha (later changed to Windsor). George was born in London on June 3, 1865, the second son of Edward VII. Known as the Sailor Prince, he entered the Royal Navy in 1877 and during an active career rose to the rank of vice admiral in 1903. The death in 1892 of his elder brother, Albert Victor, duke of Clarence, made George second in line to the succession. He married his brother's fiancée, Princess Victoria Mary of Teck, later Mary, queen consort of England, and was created duke of York in 1892. After his father succeeded Queen Victoria in 1901, George became prince of Wales and succeeded to the throne upon his father's death in 1910. Six children were born to George and Mary: Edward Albert, later Edward VIII; Albert Frederick George, later George VI; Victoria Alexandra Alice Mary; Henry William Frederick Albert, duke of Gloucester; George Edward Alexander Edmund, duke of Kent; and John Charles Francis.spouse: >Teck, Victoria Mary of (1867 - 1953)
The outstanding event of the reign of George V was World War I. Following England's declaration of war on Germany, the king renounced all the German titles belonging to him and his family and changed the name of the royal house to Windsor. He died at Sandringham House, Norfolk, on January 20, 1936. He was succeeded by Edward VIII.
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George VI (1895-1952), king of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (1936-52), and emperor of India (1936-47), of the house of Windsor. George was born at Sandringham House, Norfolk, on December 14, 1895, the second son of King George V, and he was educated at Trinity College, University of Cambridge, and the Royal Naval College on the Isle of Wight. In 1923 he married Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon, and they had two daughters: Elizabeth Alexandra Mary, later Queen Elizabeth II, and Margaret Rose. George succeeded to the throne after the abdication of his older brother, Edward VIII. Following his coronation in 1937, King George, accompanied by the queen consort, began a series of state goodwill visits, traveling to France in 1937 and to Canada and the United States in 1939. These visits were interrupted by World War II, during which the king visited many fronts in Europe, but were resumed in 1947, when the royal family spent several months in South Africa. In the last three years of his life, illness prevented any further trips. The reign of George VI was marked by the relinquishment of the title of emperor of India, following the partition of India in 1947 into Pakistan and India. He died at Sandringham on February 6, 1952, and was succeeded by Elizabeth II.spouse: >Bowes-Lyon, Elizabeth (1900 - )
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