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Ancestors of Thomas Sanford
a supplement to the book
"Thomas Sanford: Emigrant to New England"

This history provides data on the ancestors of Thomas Sanford based on information that he is a descendant of William, The Conqueror, King of England. This link to the royal line comes from King Henry II who had a child by his third concubine, Aliz de Porhoët. The childs name was William de Longespée, Earl of Salisbury. His subsequent descendants became linked with the Sanford line with the marriage of Alice Botilier to Nicholas deSandford about 1360. If this link ever becomes fully verified it would in fact link the Sanford family with many of the royal lines of Europe.

Descendants of William I, The Conqueror, King of England
(Ancestors of Thomas Sanford)

Generation 1
Generation 2
Generation 3
Generation 4
Generation 5
Generation 6
Generation 7
Generation 8
Generation 9
Generation 10
Generation 11
Generation 12
Generation 13
Generation 14
Generation 15
Generation 16
Generation 17
Generation 18
Generation 19

Generation No. 1

1. William1 I, The Conqueror, King of England (RobertA I, the Devil, 6th Duke of Normandy, RichardB II, The Good, 4th Duke of Normandy, RichardC I, The Fearless, 3rd Duke of Normandy, WilliamD I, Longsword, 2nd Duke of Normandy, Rollo the DaneE Robert , 1st Duke of Normandy, RagnvaldF I, the Wise, Eysteinsson, Earl of More, GlumraG Eystein , the Noisy, Jarl of the Uplands, IvarH Oplaendinge , Jarl of the Uplands of Norway) was born 14 Oct 1027 in Falaise, Calvados, France, and died 4 Sep 1087 in Hermenbrayville, Roune, France. He married Matilda of Flanders 1050 in Cathedral of Notre Dame d'Eu, Normandy, France, daughter of Baudouin and Princess Adela.

Notes for William I, The Conqueror, King of England:

WILLIAM I, called The Conqueror (1027-87), first Norman king of England (1066-87), who has been called one of the first modern kings and is generally regarded as one of the outstanding figures in western European history. Born in Falaise, France, William was the illegitimate son of Robert I, Duke of Normandy (1010?-35), and Arletta (fl. 1025-40), a tanner's daughter, and he is therefore sometimes called William the Bastard.

Upon the death of his father, the Norman nobles, honoring their promise to Robert, accepted William as his successor. Rebellion against the young duke broke out almost immediately, however, and his position did not become secure until 1047 when, with the aid of Henry I, King of France, he won a decisive victory over a rebel force near Caen. During a visit in 1051 to his childless cousin, Edward the Confessor, King of England, William is said to have obtained Edward's agreement that he should succeed to the English throne. In 1053, defying a papal ban, William married Matilda of Flanders (1031?-83), daughter of Baldwin V (1012-66), Count of Flanders and a descendant of King Alfred the Great, thereby strengthening his claim to the crown of England. Henry I, fearing the strong bond between Normandy and Flanders resulting from the marriage, attempted in 1054 and again in 1058 to crush the powerful duke, but on both occasions William defeated the French king's forces.

Conquest of England. About 1064, the powerful English noble, Harold, Earl of Wessex, was shipwrecked on the Norman coast and taken prisoner by William. He secured his release by swearing to support William's claim to the English throne. When King Edward died, however, the witenagemot (royal council) elected Harold king. Determined to make good his claim, William secured the sanction of Pope Alexander II (r. 1061-73) for a Norman invasion of England. The duke and his army landed at Pevensey on Sept. 28, 1066. On October 14, the Normans defeated the English forces at the celebrated Battle of Hastings, in which Harold was slain. William then proceeded to London, crushing the resistance he encountered on the way. On Christmas Day he was crowned king of England in Westminster Abbey. The English did not accept foreign rule without a struggle. William met the opposition, which was particularly violent in the north and west, with strong measures; he was responsible for the devastation of great areas of the country, particularly in Yorkshire, where Danish forces had arrived to aid the Saxon rebels. By 1070 the Norman conquest of England was complete. William invaded Scotland in 1072 and forced the Scottish king Malcolm III MacDuncan (1031?-93) to pay him homage. During the succeeding years the Conqueror crushed insurrections among his Norman followers, including that incited in 1075 by Ralph de Guader (fl. 1066-98), 1st Earl of Norfolk, and Roger Fitzwilliam (fl. 1071-75), Earl of Hereford, and a series of uprisings in Normandy led by his eldest son, Robert (c. 1054-1134), who later became Robert II, Duke of Normandy.

His Achievements. One feature of William's reign as king was his reorganization of the English feudal and administrative systems. He dissolved the great earldoms, which had enjoyed virtual independence under his Anglo-Saxon predecessors, and distributed the lands confiscated from the English to his trusted Norman followers. He introduced the Continental system of feudalism; by the Oath of Salisbury of 1086 all landlords swore allegiance to William, thus establishing the precedent that a vassal's loyalty to the king overrode his fealty to his immediate lord. The feudal lords were compelled to acknowledge the jurisdiction of the local courts, which William retained along with many other Anglo-Saxon institutions. The ecclesiastical and secular courts were separated, and the power of the papacy in English affairs was curtailed. Another accomplishment was the economic survey undertaken and incorporated in the Domesday Book in 1086. In 1087, during a campaign against King Philip I of France, William burned the town of Mantes (now Mantes-la-Jolie). William's horse fell in the vicinity of Mantes, fatally injuring him. He died in Rouen on September 7 and was buried at Caen in Saint Stephen's, one of the abbeys he and Matilda had founded at the time of their marriage as penance for their defiance of the pope. William was succeeded by his third-born son, William II.

Funk and Wagnall's Encyclopedia

Notes for Matilda of Flanders:

MATILDA, Queen of England, from 1066-1083, wife of William I, King of England, (aka, William The Conqueror) was the daughter of Baudouin V, Count of Flanders (France), and the sixth in descent from Elfrida, daughter of Alfred the Great.

ALFRED, called The Great (849-99), king of the West Saxons (871-99), and one of the outstanding figures of English history. Born in Wantage in southern England, Alfred was the youngest of five sons of King Ethelwulf (790?-858). On the death of his brother Ethelred (r. 866-71) Alfred became king, coming to the throne during a Danish invasion. Although he succeeded in making peace with the Danes, they resumed their marauding expeditions five years later, and by early 878 they were successful almost everywhere. About Easter of 878, however, Alfred established himself at Athelney and began assembling an army. In the middle of that year he defeated the Danes and captured their stronghold, probably at present-day Edington. During the following 14 years Alfred was able to devote himself to the internal affairs of his kingdom. By 886 he had captured the city of London, and soon afterward he was recognized as the king of all England.

In 893 the Danes invaded England again, and the following four years were marked by warfare; eventually, the Danes were forced to withdraw from Alfred's domain. The only ruler to resist Danish invasions successfully, Alfred made his kingdom the rallying point for all Saxons, thus laying the foundation for the unification of England.

Alfred was a patron of learning and did much for the education of his people. He began a court school and invited British and foreign scholars, notably the Welsh monk Asser (fl. 885-909?) and the Irish-born philosopher and theologian John Scotus Erigena, to come there. Alfred translated such works as The Consolation of Philosophy by the Roman statesman and philosopher Boethius, The History of the World by the Spanish priest Paulus Orosius (c. 385-420), and Pastoral Care by Pope Gregory I. Alfred's laws, the first promulgated in more than a century, were the first that made no distinction between the English and the Welsh peoples.

Funk and Wagnall's Enclyclopedia

Children of William and Matilda Flanders are:

+ 2 i. Robert2 Courthose , Duke of Normandy, born 1052 in Normandy, France; died 10 Feb 1133/34 in Cardiff, Glamorganshire, Wales.

3 ii. Abbess of Caen Cecilia, born 1056 in Normandy, France; died 30 Jul 1126 in Caen, Calvados, France.

4 iii. Prince of England Richard, born 1057 in Normandy, France; died 1081 in New Forest, Hampshire, England.

5 iv. William II, Rufus, King of England, born 1060 in Normandy, France; died 2 Aug 1100 in New Forest, Hampshire, England.

Notes for William II, Rufus, King of England:

WILLIAM II, called Rufus (1060?-1100), King of England (1087-1100), who extended his power into Normandy and Scotland. He was the third son of William the Conqueror, King of England, who on his deathbed named him as his successor in England, leaving the duchy of Normandy to his eldest son, Robert (1054?-1134). William Rufus, as he was known because of his ruddy complexion, was crowned in Westminster Abbey in 1087. The following year William's uncle Odo, bishop of Bayeux (1036?-97), led a rebellion of Norman barons who sought to unseat him in favor of Robert. William's English subjects, believing his promises of less oppressive taxation and more liberal laws, helped him quell the revolt. The king, despite his promises, continued to pursue a domestic policy that was harsh and venal.

William invaded Normandy in 1089, 1091, and 1094, winning some concessions from his brother Robert II, duke of Normandy, each time. He forced the Scottish king Malcolm III MacDuncan (1031?-93) to pay him homage and in 1092 seized the city of Carlisle and other areas claimed by Malcolm in Cumberland and Westmorland. In 1096 Robert mortgaged Normandy to William for funds to finance a Crusade. William then fought to recapture lands his brother had lost as duke of Normandy and returned the county of Maine to the rule of the duchy.

After the death in 1089 of Lanfranc, the archbishop of Canterbury, William delayed naming a successor. He held open vacant bishoprics and enriched himself with church monies, incurring the displeasure of many ecclesiastics. In 1093 he selected Anselm, Abbot of Bec (see Anselm, Saint), as the new archbishop, but they quarreled over William's authority to control church appointments. William was killed on Aug. 2, 1100, while on a hunting trip in the New Forest in Hampshire. It is not known whether the slaying, which is traditionally ascribed to a Norman named Walter Tirel (d. after 1100), was accidental or intentional. William was buried at Winchester; he never married and had no children. His younger brother succeeded to the throne as King Henry I.

Funk and Wagnall's Encyclopedia

6 v. Princess of England Constance, born 1061 in Normandy, France; died 13 Aug 1090 in England. She married Alan Fergant , Duke of Brittany 1086.

+ 7 vi. Princess of England Adela, born 1062 in Normandy, France; died 8 Mar 1134/35 in Marsilly, France.

8 vii. Agatha Matilda , Princess of England, born ABT 1064 in Normandy, France; died Bef. 1080 in Calvados, France. She married Earl of Wessex Harold.

+ 9 viii. Henry I, Beauclerc, King of England, born Sep 1068 in Selby, Yorkshire, England; died 1 Dec 1135 in Rouen, Normandy, France.

10 ix. Princess of England Adeliza, born ABT 1074; died Unknown.

 


Generation No. 2

2. Robert2 Courthose , Duke of Normandy (William1 I, The Conqueror, King of England, RobertA I, the Devil, 6th Duke of Normandy, RichardB II, The Good, 4th Duke of Normandy, RichardC I, The Fearless, 3rd Duke of Normandy, WilliamD I, Longsword, 2nd Duke of Normandy, Rollo the DaneE Robert , 1st Duke of Normandy, RagnvaldF I, the Wise, Eysteinsson, Earl of More, GlumraG Eystein , the Noisy, Jarl of the Uplands, IvarH Oplaendinge , Jarl of the Uplands of Norway) was born 1052 in Normandy, France, and died 10 Feb 1133/34 in Cardiff, Glamorganshire, Wales. He married Sybilla of Conversano May 1100 in Apulia, Italy.

Notes for Robert Courthose , Duke of Normandy:

Robert II, called Courteheuse \kuer-toez\ . 1054? -1134. Duke (1087-1134). Eldest son of William the Conqueror. Rebelled against his father (1077, 1080, 1082). Disputed Normandy with his brother William II of England (1089, 1091, 1094); incompetent as ruler, failed to control rebellious vassals or establish a central authority. Took important part in First Crusade (1096-99), distinguishing himself at battles of Dorylaeum (1097), Jerusalem (1099), and Ascalon (1099); delayed in Italy on his return (1100). Invaded England (1101) in attempt to take throne from his younger brother, Henry I; retired to Normandy; at war again with Henry (1105-06); defeated at Tinchebrai (1106); imprisoned at Cardiff (1106-34).

Funk and Wagnall's Encyclopedia

Child of Robert Courthose and Sybilla Conversano is:

11 i. William3 Clito , Count of Flanders, born 1101; died 1128. He married Sybil of Anjou.

Notes for William Clito , Count of Flanders:

William III, surnamed Cliton \kle-ton\ . 1101-1128. Titular duke. Son of Robert II Curthose; aided by Louis VI of France and Fulk of Anjou, attempted several times in vain to recover Normandy from Henry I of England, who had imprisoned Robert (1106); made count of Flanders by Louis (1127); killed by rival for Flanders, Thierry d' Alsace, at siege of Alost.

Funk and Wagnall's Encyclopedia

 

7. Princess of England2 Adela (William1 I, The Conqueror, King of England, RobertA I, the Devil, 6th Duke of Normandy, RichardB II, The Good, 4th Duke of Normandy, RichardC I, The Fearless, 3rd Duke of Normandy, WilliamD I, Longsword, 2nd Duke of Normandy, Rollo the DaneE Robert , 1st Duke of Normandy, RagnvaldF I, the Wise, Eysteinsson, Earl of More, GlumraG Eystein , the Noisy, Jarl of the Uplands, IvarH Oplaendinge , Jarl of the Uplands of Norway) was born 1062 in Normandy, France, and died 8 Mar 1134/35 in Marsilly, France. She married Count of Blois Stephen 1080.

Children of Princess Adela and Count Stephen are:

+ 12 i. King of England3 Stephen, born 1097 in Blois, France; died 25 Oct 1154 in Dover, England.

13 ii. William of England, born ABT 1100; died Unknown. He married Agnes de Sulli.

+ 14 iii. Count of Blois Theobald, born ABT 1102; died 1152.

15 iv. Bishop of Winchester Henry, born ABT 1106; died 1171.

16 v. Matilda of Chester, born ABT 1108; died 1120 in Drowned in the White Ship. She married Earl of Chester Richard.

9. Henry2 I, Beauclerc, King of England (William1 I, The Conqueror, King of England, RobertA I, the Devil, 6th Duke of Normandy, RichardB II, The Good, 4th Duke of Normandy, RichardC I, The Fearless, 3rd Duke of Normandy, WilliamD I, Longsword, 2nd Duke of Normandy, Rollo the DaneE Robert , 1st Duke of Normandy, RagnvaldF I, the Wise, Eysteinsson, Earl of More, GlumraG Eystein , the Noisy, Jarl of the Uplands, IvarH Oplaendinge , Jarl of the Uplands of Norway) was born Sep 1068 in Selby, Yorkshire, England, and died 1 Dec 1135 in Rouen, Normandy, France. He married (1) Princess of Scotland Matilda 11 Nov 1100 in Westminister Abbey, daughter of Malcolm and Queen Margaret. He married (2) Adelicia of Lower Lorraine Aft. 1118.

Notes for Henry I, Beauclerc, King of England:

HENRY I (1068-1135), third Norman king of England (1100-35), fourth son of William the Conqueror. Henry was born in Selby. Because his father, who died in 1087, left him no land, Henry made several unsuccessful attempts to gain territories on the Continent. On the death of his brother William II in 1100, Henry took advantage of the absence of another brother-Robert (c. 1054-1134), who had a prior claim to the throne-to seize the royal treasury and have himself crowned king at Westminster. Henry subsequently secured his position with the nobles and with the church by issuing a charter of liberties that acknowledged the feudal rights of the nobles and the rights of the church.

In 1101 Robert, who was duke of Normandy, invaded England, but Henry persuaded him to withdraw by promising him a pension and military aid on the Continent. In 1102 Henry put down a revolt of nobles, who subsequently took refuge in Normandy, where they were aided by Robert. By defeating Robert at Tinchebray, France, in 1106, Henry won Normandy. During the rest of his reign, however, he constantly had to put down uprisings that threatened his rule in Normandy. The conflict between Henry and Anselm, archbishop of Canterbury, over the question of lay investiture (the appointment of church officials by the king), was settled in 1107 by a compromise that left the king with substantial control in the matter. Because he had no surviving male heir, Henry was forced to designate his daughter Matilda (1102-67) as his heiress. After his death on Dec. 1, 1135, at Lyons-la-Foret, Normandy, however, Henry's nephew, Stephen of Blois, usurped the throne, plunging the country into a protracted civil war that ended only with the accession of Matilda's son, Henry II, in 1154.

Funk and Wagnall's Encyclopedia

Children of Henry and Princess Matilda are:

+ 17 i. Princess of England3 Matilda, born 7 Feb 1101/02 in England; died 10 Sep 1167 in Notre Dame, DePres, France.

18 ii. William Aetheling , Duke of Normandy, born 1103; died 1120 in drowned in the White Ship. He married Matilda of Anjou.

Notes for William Aetheling , Duke of Normandy:

William, called the Aetheling \'ath-e-lin,'ath-\ . 1103-1120. Duke (1120). Only legitimate son of Henry I of England; received homage of Norman barons (1115); m. (1119) Matilda, daughter of Fulk V of Anjou; invested with duchy by father (1120); drowned returning to England in the "White Ship."

Funk & Wagnall's Encyclopedia

 

 


Generation No. 3

12. Stephen3 King of England (Princess of England2 Adela, William1 I, The Conqueror, King of England, RobertA I, the Devil, 6th Duke of Normandy, RichardB II, The Good, 4th Duke of Normandy, RichardC I, The Fearless, 3rd Duke of Normandy, WilliamD I, Longsword, 2nd Duke of Normandy, Rollo the DaneE Robert , 1st Duke of Normandy, RagnvaldF I, the Wise, Eysteinsson, Earl of More, GlumraG Eystein , the Noisy, Jarl of the Uplands, IvarH Oplaendinge , Jarl of the Uplands of Norway) was born 1097 in Blois, France, and died 25 Oct 1154 in Dover, England. He married Matilda of Boulogne in 1125, daughter of Eustace and Mary Boulogne.

Notes for King of England Stephen:

Stephen of Blois (1097?-1154), king of England (1135-54), born probably in Blois, France. He was the grandson of King William I (the Conqueror) and nephew of Henry I. In 1125 Stephen swore fidelity to Henry's daughter Matilda, to succeed her father to the throne. Upon Henry's death, however, Stephen proclaimed himself king. He was opposed by many English barons and by Matilda and her supporters, and his reign was troubled by anarchy and constant internal wars. For six months in 1141 he was Matilda's prisoner, during which time she reigned as queen. Stephen was restored to the throne, but for five years Matilda and many of the nobles continued to oppose him. During the course of the frequent civil wars, much of the land was ravaged, and England was plunged into almost complete chaos. In 1148 Matilda left England and gave up her claim in favor of her son, Henry of Anjou, later Henry II. Henry then waged war against Stephen until 1153, when Stephen was forced to name Henry his heir.

Funk and Wagnall's Encyclopedia

Children of King Stephen and Matilda Boulogne are:

19 i. Count of Mortain4 William, born Aft. 1125; died 1159. He married Isabella de Warenne.

20 ii. Eustace IV, Count of Boulogne, born 1130; died 10 Aug 1153. He married Constance of France Feb 1139/40.

21 iii. Mary of Blois, born 1136; died 1182. She married Matthew of Alsace.

14. Count of Blois3 Theobald (Princess of England2 Adela, William1 I, The Conqueror, King of England, RobertA I, the Devil, 6th Duke of Normandy, RichardB II, The Good, 4th Duke of Normandy, RichardC I, The Fearless, 3rd Duke of Normandy, WilliamD I, Longsword, 2nd Duke of Normandy, Rollo the DaneE Robert , 1st Duke of Normandy, RagnvaldF I, the Wise, Eysteinsson, Earl of More, GlumraG Eystein , the Noisy, Jarl of the Uplands, IvarH Oplaendinge , Jarl of the Uplands of Norway) was born ABT 1102, and died 1152. He married Maud of Carinthia 1126.

Child of Count Theobald and Maud Carinthia is:

22 i. Alix4 de Champagne, born Aft. 1126; died 24 Jun 1206. She married Louis VII, The Young, King of France 13 Nov 1160.

17. Princess of England3 Matilda (Henry2 I, Beauclerc, King of England, William1 I, The Conqueror, King of England, RobertA I, the Devil, 6th Duke of Normandy, RichardB II, The Good, 4th Duke of Normandy, RichardC I, The Fearless, 3rd Duke of Normandy, WilliamD I, Longsword, 2nd Duke of Normandy, Rollo the DaneE Robert , 1st Duke of Normandy, RagnvaldF I, the Wise, Eysteinsson, Earl of More, GlumraG Eystein , the Noisy, Jarl of the Uplands, IvarH Oplaendinge , Jarl of the Uplands of Norway) was born 7 Feb 1101/02 in England, and died 10 Sep 1167 in Notre Dame, DePres, France. She married (1) Henry V, Emperor of Germany 1120. She married (2) Geoffrey Plantagenet V, Count of Anjou 3 Apr 1127, son of Fulk and Erembourg Maine.

Notes for Princess of England Matilda:

MATILDA, married (1) Henry V, Emperor of Germany; and married (2) Geoffrey V, Count of Anjou and Maine. After the death of her father in 1135, she had been designated the heiress of Henry I but had been deprived of the succession by her cousin, Stephen of Blois (1104-1154), who made himself king. Henry claimed the English kingship through his mother, Matilda (1102-67) in 1154 and served until his death in 1189. (Source: Britain's Kings & Queens, Pitkin, 1994)

Funk and Wagnall's Encyclopedia

Notes for Henry V, Emperor of Germany:

Henry V (Holy Roman Empire) (1086-1125), German king (1098-1125) and Holy Roman emperor (1106-25), last of the Salian emperors, who enlarged the German Kingdom and ended its civil war.

Henry was born on November 8, 1086, in Goslar, Germany. Fearing that his succession was endangered, Henry rebelled against his father, Emperor Henry IV, in 1104, captured him, and forced him to abdicate. The young Henry became undisputed ruler on the death of his father in 1106.

In 1110 Henry agreed to respect the decree of Pope Paschal II against lay investiture, that is, the king's right to confer symbols of authority on church officials, providing that the pope would crown him and that the church would surrender all its secular property and rights within the empire. Because Henry's demand raised such a furor among the clergy when it was announced to them on the day of coronation, Paschal refused to crown Henry, who thereupon departed from Rome, taking the pope prisoner. To gain his freedom, the pope allowed Henry the power of investiture and crowned him emperor, but in 1112 he retracted his concessions. From 1114 to 1121 many of the German princes rebelled against Henry. Although northern Germany was in revolt in 1116, Henry invaded Italy to seize the territories that had been left to the papacy by Matilda, countess of Tuscany. After driving Pope Paschal from Rome, Henry had himself recrowned in 1117 by Maurice Bourdin, archbishop of Braga, whom he established as the antipope Gregory VIII (died about 1137) after the death of Paschal in 1118. Henry was accordingly excommunicated by Paschal's successor, Pope Gelasius II (reigned 1118-19).

On returning to Germany, Henry concluded peace with his former domestic enemies at the Diet of Würzburg in 1121. By the Concordat of Worms in 1122 he established a compromise on investiture with the papacy, abandoning the antipope Gregory VIII; he was then reinstated in the communion of the church, but retained the right to appoint church officials. In the last year of his reign the emperor, in alliance with his father-in-law, Henry I of England, led an unsuccessful expedition against Louis VI of France. Henry died in Utrecht on May 23, 1125, and was succeeded by Lothair II.

Funk & Wagnall's Encyclopedia

Children of Princess Matilda and Geoffrey Plantagenet are:

+ 23 i. Henry4 II, King of England, born 5 Mar 1132/33 in Le Mans, Sarthe, France; died 6 Jul 1189 in Chinon Castle, Tours, France.

24 ii. Count of Nantes Goeffrey, born 1134; died 1158.

25 iii. Count of Poitou William, born ABT 1137; died 1164.

 


Generation No. 4

23. Henry4 II, King of England (Princess of England3 Matilda, Henry2 I, Beauclerc, King of England, William1 I, The Conqueror, King of England, RobertA I, the Devil, 6th Duke of Normandy, RichardB II, The Good, 4th Duke of Normandy, RichardC I, The Fearless, 3rd Duke of Normandy, WilliamD I, Longsword, 2nd Duke of Normandy, Rollo the DaneE Robert , 1st Duke of Normandy, RagnvaldF I, the Wise, Eysteinsson, Earl of More, GlumraG Eystein , the Noisy, Jarl of the Uplands, IvarH Oplaendinge , Jarl of the Uplands of Norway) was born 5 Mar 1132/33 in Le Mans, Sarthe, France, and died 6 Jul 1189 in Chinon Castle, Tours, France. He married (1) Eleanor of Aquitaine , Dutchess of Aquitaine 18 May 1152 in Bordeaux Cathedral, Bordeaux, France. He met (2) Aliz de Porhoët , Third Concubine of Henry II Bef. 1173 in Unmarried.

Notes for Henry II, King of England:

HENRY II (1133-89), king of England (1154-89), first monarch of the house of Anjou, or Plantagenet, an important administrative reformer, who was one of the most powerful European rulers of his time. Born March 5, 1133, at Le Mans, France, Henry became duke of Normandy in 1151. The following year, on the death of his father, he inherited the Angevin territories in France. By his marriage in 1152 to Eleanor of Aquitaine, Henry added vast territories in southwestern France to his possessions. Henry claimed the English kingship through his mother, Matilda (1102-67). She had been designated the heiress of Henry I but had been deprived of the succession by her cousin, Stephen of Blois, who made himself king.

In 1153 Henry defeated Stephen's armies in England and compelled the king to choose him as his successor; on Stephen's death, the following year, Henry became king. During the first few years of his reign Henry quelled the disorders that had developed during Stephen's reign, regained the northern counties of England, which had previously been ceded to Scotland, and conquered North Wales. In 1171-72 he began the Norman conquest of Ireland and in 1174 forced William the Lion, king of the Scots, to recognize him as overlord. In 1164 Henry became involved in a quarrel with Thomas a Becket, whom he had appointed archbishop of Canterbury. By the Constitutions of Clarendon, the king decreed that priests accused of crimes should be tried in royal courts; Becket claimed that such cases should be handled by ecclesiastical courts, and the controversy that followed ended in 1170 with Becket's murder by four of Henry's knights. Widespread indignation over the murder forced the king to rescind his decree and recognize Becket as a martyr. Although he failed to subject the church to his courts, Henry's judicial reforms were of lasting significance. In England he established a centralized system of justice accessible to all freemen and administered by judges who traveled around the country at regular intervals. He also began the process of replacing the old trial by ordeal with modern court procedures.

From the beginning of his reign, Henry was involved in conflict with Louis VII, King of France, and later with Louis's successor, Philip II, over the French provinces that Henry claimed. A succession of rebellions against Henry, headed by his sons and furthered by Philip II and by Eleanor of Aquitaine, began in 1173 and continued until his death at Chinon, France, on July 6, 1189. (Note: Eleanor of Aquitaine was the divorced first wife of King Louis VII of France). Henry was succeeded by his son Richard I, called Richard the Lion-Hearted.

Funk and Wagnall's Encyclopedia

Henry's "Third Concubine", Aliz De Porhoët, gave birth to his son, William De Longespée, about 1173. William became Earl of Salisbury and it was through the descendants of this line and the subsequent marriage of Alice Botilier to Nicholas deSandford about 1350 that merged his ancestors and descendants into the Thomas Sanford line (1608-1681), and ultimately into the Bement line in 1893 with the marriage of Susan Belle Sanford (1872-1899) to William Henry Bement.

Dennis Gene BeMent

August, 1997

Henry II is further researched on a website from a professor at the University of Hull, UK. This may be accessed directly at: http://www.tardis.ed.ac.uk/cgi/bct/gedlkup/n=royal?royal01371

Dennis Gene BeMent

November, 1997

Notes for Aliz de Porhoët , Third Concubine of Henry II:

Additional information on the ancestors of Thomas Sanford is located on Brøderbund World Family Tree, Volume 8, Pedigree #3331. This provides a vital link to Nicholas deSandford and his spouse, Alice Botilier. Alice is a descendant of Henry II, King of England, and links the Sanford family with the royal families of the United Kingdom and other royal families on the continent.

Dennis BeMent (August, 1997)

Additional information on Aliz de Porhoët, the Third Concubine of King Henry II may be found on Brøderbund World Family Tree, Volume 12, Pedigree #1152. This record indicates a sealing and reference number 9FTR-4M as well as a baptism on 11 Oct 1954 and endowment on 23 Nov 1954 (SG).

Dennis BeMent (November, 1997)

Information received from yet another source indicates that Aliz may have been a younger relative of Henry II and that it may have been an incestuous relationship in the least which resulted in an iligitimate child.

Children of Henry and Eleanor Aquitaine are:

26 i. Richard5 I, The Lionhearted, King of England, born 8 Sep 1157 in Beaumont Palace,Oxford,England; died 6 Apr 1199 in Chalus,Limousin,France. He married Berengaria of Navarre 12 May 1191 in Chapel of St George, Limasol, Cyprus.

Notes for Richard I, The Lionhearted, King of England:

RICHARD I, called Coeur de Lion or Lion-Hearted (1157-99), King of England (1189-99), third son of King Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine, born in Oxford. When he was an infant, Richard was betrothed to a daughter of the French king Louis VII, and in 1172 he was given the duchy of Aquitaine in France, his mother's inheritance. His early years were spent in warring against his father to protect his own interests; he emerged a brilliant soldier.

In 1189 he became King of England and shortly thereafter set out on the Third Crusade. He was accompanied by the young Philip II, King of France, son of Louis VII. The Crusade proved a failure almost from the start, mainly because of the lack of harmony between the two kings. In Sicily Richard quarreled with Philip and refused to marry Philip's sister as planned. Instead he married Berengaria of Navarre on Cyprus, which he conquered in 1191. After capturing Acre from the Saracens that same year, Richard executed 2700 Muslim prisoners of war. It was Richard's personal valor in the Holy Land, however, rather than his ruthlessness, that made his name famous in legend. Conflict over policy in the Holy Land resulted in a break between the two, and Philip returned to France alone. Richard spent months in indecisive contests against Saladin, Sultan of Egypt and Syria, before making a truce by which Jerusalem was left in Saladin's hands. Captured en route to England by Leopold V, Duke of Austria (1157-94), Richard was handed over to Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV. He was released in 1194 only after paying a heavy ransom. Richard returned to England and there made peace with his brother, John, later King of England, who in his absence had been conspiring with Philip to usurp the English throne. Leaving the government of England to the care of the able administrator Hubert Walter, archbishop of Canterbury (d. 1205), Richard went to France in 1194 to wage war against the French king. Campaigns in defense of his European lands continued for five years. Victor in most of the warfare in which he engaged, Richard was fatally wounded by an arrow during an insignificant skirmish in 1199.

As king, Richard had chosen able ministers, to whom he left most matters of administration. Under his rule, however, England suffered heavy taxation, levied to support his expeditions. Sometimes cruel, sometimes magnanimous, and always courageous, Richard was well versed in the knightly accomplishments of his age and was also a poet. He was to become the hero of many legendary tales. He was introduced by his mother, Eleanor, to princess Berengaria of Navarre. On his mother's request Richard agreed to marry the princess, as the region of Navarre was a useful territory straddling the Pyrenees. He took the Princess with him on his travels, and Berengaria was crowned Queen of England when they put ashore in Cyprus. Richard was homosexually inclined and saw very little of his Queen, and left no son.

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Notes for Berengaria of Navarre:

After the death of King Richard she fixed her residence at Mans, in Orleannois, and passed her latter years in pious retirement within the walls of the Abbey of L'Espan, which she had founded. Some sources say she was born after 1170.

It is said that she never visited England, but this is untrue.

27 ii. Eleanor Plantagenet, born 13 Oct 1162 in Domfront Castle, Normandy, France; died 31 Oct 1214 in Burgos, Castile, Spain. She married Alfonso VIII, King of Castile ABT 1177.

Notes for Eleanor Plantagenet:

One sources indicates she died 25 Oct 1214 at Las Huelgas. She had twelve children.

+ 28 iii. Lackland John , King of England, born 24 Dec 1167 in Beaumont Palace,Oxford,England; died 19 Oct 1216 in Newark Castle, Nottinghamshire, England.

Child of Henry and Aliz de Porhoët is:

+ 29 i. William5 de Longespée , Earl of Salisbury, born ABT 1173 in England; died 7 Mar 1225/26 in Salisbury, Wilts, England.

 


Generation No. 5

28. Lackland5 John , King of England (Henry4 II, King of England, Princess of England3 Matilda, Henry2 I, Beauclerc, King of England, William1 I, The Conqueror, King of England, RobertA I, the Devil, 6th Duke of Normandy, RichardB II, The Good, 4th Duke of Normandy, RichardC I, The Fearless, 3rd Duke of Normandy, WilliamD I, Longsword, 2nd Duke of Normandy, Rollo the DaneE Robert , 1st Duke of Normandy, RagnvaldF I, the Wise, Eysteinsson, Earl of More, GlumraG Eystein , the Noisy, Jarl of the Uplands, IvarH Oplaendinge , Jarl of the Uplands of Norway) was born 24 Dec 1167 in Beaumont Palace,Oxford,England, and died 19 Oct 1216 in Newark Castle, Nottinghamshire, England. He married (1) Isabella of Gloucester ABT 1189. He married (2) Isabella Taillefer 24 Aug 1200 in Bordeaux, France.

Notes for Lackland John , King of England:

John (of England), called John Lackland (1167-1216), King of England (1199-1216), best known for signing the Magna Carta.

John was born in Oxford on December 24, 1167, the youngest son of King Henry II and Eleanor of Aquitaine. Henry provided for the eventual inheritance of his lands by his older sons before John was born. By 1186, however, only Richard I, the Lion-Hearted, and John were left as Henry's heirs. In 1189, as Henry neared death, John joined Richard's rebellion against their father, and when Richard was crowned, he gave John many estates and titles. John tried but failed to usurp the Crown while Richard was away on the Third Crusade. Upon returning to England, Richard forgave him. When his brother died in 1199, John became king. A revolt ensued by the supporters of Arthur of Brittany, the son of John's brother, Geoffrey. Arthur was defeated and captured in 1202, and John is believed to have had him murdered. King Philip II of France continued Arthur's war until John had to surrender nearly all his French possessions in 1204. In 1207 John refused to accept the election of Stephen Langton as archbishop of Canterbury. Pope Innocent III then excommunicated him and began negotiating with Philip for an invasion of England. Desperate, John surrendered England to the pope and in 1213 received it back as a fief. Trying to regain his French possession, he was decisively defeated by Philip in 1214. John's reign had become increasingly tyrannical; to support his wars he had extorted money, raised taxes, and confiscated properties. His barons finally united to force him to respect their rights and privileges. John had little choice but to sign the Magna Carta presented to him by his barons at Runnymede in 1215, making him subject, rather than superior, to the law. Shortly afterward John and the barons were at war.

He divorced his first wife after 10 childless years of marriage; the 34 year-old king soon after wed Isabella, the 12-year old daughter of Count Audemar of Angouleme; after John's death, Isabella wed the son of her first fiance. He died at Newark in Nottinghamshire on October 19, 1216, while still pursuing the campaign, and was succeeded by his son, Henry III.

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Notes for Isabella Taillefer:

She was betrothed to Hugh before she married John. After John's death she

retired to her native city and eventually married Hugh after about three years. Countess of Angoulême 1202. She had five childen to the first marriage with John, and eleven more with her second husband, Hugh.

Children of Lackland John and Isabella Taillefer are:

+ 30 i. Henry6 III, King of England, born 1 Oct 1207 in Winchester, England; died 16 Nov 1272 in St. Edmundsbury, England.

31 ii. Princess of England Joan, born 22 Jul 1210 in Gloucester, England; died 4 Mar 1238/39 in Havering-atte-Bower, Essex, England. She married Alexander II, King of Scotland 19 Jun 1221.

Notes for Alexander II, King of Scotland:

Alexander II (of Scotland) (1198-1249), king of Scotland (1214-49), the son of William the Lion. He supported the English barons in their rebellion against King John, helping them to secure the Magna Carta (1215), but in 1217 he recognized John's successor, Henry III, as his overlord, and in 1221 he married Henry's sister, Joan. After Joan's death in 1238, he took a second wife, Mary of Coucy, who bore him a son in 1241. By the Peace of York (1237), Alexander and Henry established the permanent boundary between England and Scotland. At home, Alexander imposed his rule over outlying parts of Scotland and strengthened the power of the monarchy.

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29. William5 de Longespée , Earl of Salisbury (Henry4 II, King of England, Princess of England3 Matilda, Henry2 I, Beauclerc, King of England, William1 I, The Conqueror, King of England, RobertA I, the Devil, 6th Duke of Normandy, RichardB II, The Good, 4th Duke of Normandy, RichardC I, The Fearless, 3rd Duke of Normandy, WilliamD I, Longsword, 2nd Duke of Normandy, Rollo the DaneE Robert , 1st Duke of Normandy, RagnvaldF I, the Wise, Eysteinsson, Earl of More, GlumraG Eystein , the Noisy, Jarl of the Uplands, IvarH Oplaendinge , Jarl of the Uplands of Norway, the StingyI Halfdan, EysteinnJ I, Fretr Halfdansson, HalfdanK Huitbein/Olasson, Olaf Ingjaldsson/UlafL Tvetelia, IngialdM Yngling, Braut-OnundN Ingvarsson, IngvarO Eysteinsson, EysteinP Adilsson, AdilsQ Ottarsson, OttarR Egilsson, EgilS Aunsson, AunT Jorundsson , the Aged, JorundU Yngvasson, YngviV Alreksson, AlrekW Agnasson, AgniX Dagsson, DagY Dyggvasson, DyggviZ Domarsson, Domar[ Domaldasson, Domaldi} Visbursson, Visbur] Vanlandasson, Vanlanti^ Svegdasson, Svegdi_ Fjolnarsson, Fjoinir` Yngvi-Freysson, King of Swedesa Yngvi-Frey, King of Swedesb Njord) was born ABT 1173 in England, and died 7 Mar 1225/26 in Salisbury, Wilts, England. He married Ela FitzPatrick , Countess of Salisbury 1198, daughter of William Fitzpatrick.

Notes for William de Longespée , Earl of Salisbury:

It is also believed that the mother of William de Longespée may have been Rosamund de Clifford rather than Aliz de Porhoet. It appears to be certain that he was in fact the son of King Henry II of England.

The House of Clifford, Chapter 5: Much controversy surrounds the identity of

the Mother of William, for Rosamund was not the king's only mistress, though

there are many who believe she was. Those who dispute Rosamund's claim base their case on the disparity in the ages of all concerned, but there is other

evidence as well which can not be ignored. Unfortunately, the records date

neither the birth of Rosamund nor that of her father, or her reputed sons.

Documents also indicate an Ida, and an Ykenai as his mother. Died while on Crusade. (Source: Copyright 1994 & 1995 & 1996 & 1997 Brian C. Tompsett, University of Hull, UK, E-mail: B.C.Tompsett@dcs.hull.ac.uk

Notes for Ela FitzPatrick , Countess of Salisbury:

Ela FitzPatrick, Countess of Salisbury was the daughter and heiress of the Earl of Salisbury, and later, Abbess of Lacock in Wiltshire. (Source: Copyright 1994 & 1995 & 1996 & 1997 Brian C. Tompsett, University of Hull, UK)

Child of William de Longespée and Ela FitzPatrick is:

+ 32 i. Stephen6 Longespée, born ABT 1216 in Salisbury, Wilts, England; died 1260.

 


Generation No. 6

30. Henry6 III, King of England (Lackland5 John , King of England, Henry4 II, King of England, Matilda3 Princess of England, Henry2 I, Beauclerc, King of England, William1 I, The Conqueror, King of England, RobertA I, the Devil, 6th Duke of Normandy, RichardB II, The Good, 4th Duke of Normandy, RichardC I, The Fearless, 3rd Duke of Normandy, WilliamD I, Longsword, 2nd Duke of Normandy, Rollo the DaneE Robert , 1st Duke of Normandy, RagnvaldF I, the Wise, Eysteinsson, Earl of More, GlumraG Eystein , the Noisy, Jarl of the Uplands, IvarH Oplaendinge , Jarl of the Uplands of Norway) was born 1 Oct 1207 in Winchester, England, and died 16 Nov 1272 in St. Edmundsbury, England. He married Eleanor of Provence 14 Jan 1234/35 in Canterbury, England.

Notes for Henry III, King of England:

Henry III (of England) (1207-72), king of England (1216-72), son and successor of King John (Lackland), and a member of the house of Anjou, or Plantagenet. Henry ascended the throne at the age of nine, on the death of his father. During his minority the kingdom was ruled by William Marshal, Earl of Pembroke, as regent, but after his death in 1219 the justiciar Hubert de Burgh was the chief power in the government. During the regency the French, who occupied much of eastern England, were expelled, and rebellious barons were subdued.

Henry was declared of age in 1227. In 1232 he dismissed Hubert de Burgh from his court and commenced ruling without the aid of ministers. Henry displeased the barons by filling government and church offices with foreign favorites, many of them relatives of his wife, Eleanor of Provence, whom he married in 1236, and by squandering money on Continental wars, especially in France. In order to secure the throne of Sicily for one of his sons, Henry agreed to pay the pope a large sum. When the king requested money from the barons to pay his debt, they refused and in 1258 forced him to agree to the Provisions of Oxford, whereby he agreed to share his power with a council of barons. Henry soon repudiated his oath, however, with papal approval. After a brief period of war, the matter was referred to the arbitration of Louis IX, King of France, who decided in Henry's favor in a judgment called the Mise of Amiens (1264). Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester, accordingly led the barons into war, defeated Henry at Lewes, and took him prisoner. In 1265, however, Henry's son and heir, Edward, later King Edward I, led the royal troops to victory over the barons at Evesham, about 40.2 km (about 25 mi) south of Birmingham. Simon de Montfort was killed in the battle, and the barons agreed to a compromise with Edward and his party in 1267. From that time on Edward ruled England, and when Henry died, he succeeded him as king.

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Children of Henry and Eleanor Provence are:

+ 33 i. Edward7 I, Longshanks, King of England, born 17 Jun 1239 in Westminster, England; died 7 Jul 1307 in Burgh-on-the-Sands, Carlisle, England.

+ 34 ii. Princess of England Margaret, born 1240; died 1275.

32. Stephen6 Longespée (William5 de Longespée, Earl of Salisbury, Henry4 II, King of England, Matilda3 Princess of England, Henry2 I, Beauclerc, King of England, William1 I, The Conqueror, King of England, RobertA I, the Devil, 6th Duke of Normandy, RichardB II, The Good, 4th Duke of Normandy, RichardC I, The Fearless, 3rd Duke of Normandy, WilliamD I, Longsword, 2nd Duke of Normandy, Rollo the DaneE Robert , 1st Duke of Normandy, RagnvaldF I, the Wise, Eysteinsson, Earl of More, GlumraG Eystein , the Noisy, Jarl of the Uplands, IvarH Oplaendinge , Jarl of the Uplands of Norway) was born ABT 1216 in Salisbury, Wilts, England, and died 1260. He married Countess of Ulster Emaline WFT Est. 1231-1255.

Child of Stephen Longespée and Countess Emaline is:

+ 35 i. Eleanor7 Longespée, born ABT 1245; died WFT Est. 1271-1339.

 


Generation No. 7

33. Edward7 I, Longshanks, King of England (Henry6 III, King of England, Lackland5 John , King of England, Henry4 II, King of England, Matilda3 Princess of England, Henry2 I, Beauclerc, King of England, William1 I, The Conqueror, King of England, RobertA I, the Devil, 6th Duke of Normandy, RichardB II, The Good, 4th Duke of Normandy, RichardC I, The Fearless, 3rd Duke of Normandy, WilliamD I, Longsword, 2nd Duke of Normandy, Rollo the DaneE Robert , 1st Duke of Normandy, RagnvaldF I, the Wise, Eysteinsson, Earl of More, GlumraG Eystein , the Noisy, Jarl of the Uplands, IvarH Oplaendinge , Jarl of the Uplands of Norway) was born 17 Jun 1239 in Westminster, England, and died 7 Jul 1307 in Burgh-on-the-Sands, Carlisle, England. He married (1) Eleanor of Castile 13 Oct 1254 in Abbey of Las Huedgas, Burgos, Castile, Spain. He married (2) Margaret of France Aft. 1290, daughter of Philip III, King of France.

Notes for Edward I, Longshanks, King of England:

Edward I, called Longshanks (1239-1307), King of England (1272-1307), of the house of Plantagenet. He was born in Westminster on June 17, 1239, the eldest son of King Henry III, and at 15 married Eleanor of Castile. In the struggles of the barons against the crown for constitutional and ecclesiastical reforms, Edward took a vacillating course. When warfare broke out between the crown and the nobility, Edward fought on the side of the king, winning the decisive battle of Evesham in 1265. Five years later he left England to join the Seventh Crusade. Following his father's death in 1272, and while he was still abroad, Edward was recognized as king by the English barons; in 1273, on his return to England, he was crowned.

The first years of Edward's reign were a period of the consolidation of his power. He suppressed corruption in the administration of justice, restricted the jurisdiction of the ecclesiastical courts to church affairs, and eliminated the papacy's overlordship over England. On the refusal of Llewelyn ab Gruffydd, ruler of Wales, to submit to the English crown, Edward began the military conflict that resulted, in 1284, in the annexation of Llewelyn's principality to the English crown. In 1290 Edward expelled all Jews from England. War between England and France broke out in 1293 as a result of the efforts of France to curb Edward's power in Gascony. Edward lost Gascony in 1293 and did not again come into possession of the duchy until 1303. About the same year in which he lost Gascony, the Welsh rose in rebellion.

Greater than either of these problems was the disaffection of the people of Scotland. In agreeing to arbitrate among the claimants to the Scottish throne, Edward, in 1291, had exacted as a prior condition the recognition by all concerned of his overlordship of Scotland. The Scots later repudiated him and made an alliance with France against England. To meet the critical situations in Wales and Scotland, Edward summoned a parliament, called the Model Parliament by historians because it was a representative body and in that respect was the forerunner of all future parliaments. Assured by Parliament of support at home, Edward took the field and suppressed the Welsh insurrection. In 1296, after invading and conquering Scotland, he declared himself king of that realm. In 1298 he again invaded Scotland to suppress the revolt led by Sir William Wallace. In winning the Battle of Falkirk in 1298, Edward achieved the greatest military triumph of his career, but he failed to crush Scottish opposition.

The conquest of Scotland became the ruling passion of his life. He was, however, compelled by the nobles, clergy, and commons to desist in his attempts to raise by arbitrary taxes the funds he needed for campaigns. In 1299 Edward made peace with France and married Margaret, sister of King Philip III of France. Thus freed of war, he again undertook the conquest of Scotland in 1303. Wallace was captured and executed in 1305. No sooner had Edward established his government in Scotland, however, than a new revolt broke out and culminated in the coronation of Robert Bruce as King of Scotland. In 1307 Edward set out for the third time to subdue the Scots, but he died en route near Carlisle on July 7, 1307.

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Children of Edward and Eleanor Castile are:

36 i. Joan8 Plantagenet, born 1272 in Acre, Palestine; died 23 Apr 1307 in Clare, Suffolk, England. She married Gilbert de Clare , Sir 30 Apr 1290 in Westminster Abbey, London, England.

+ 37 ii. Edward II, King of England, born 25 Apr 1284 in Caernarvon Castle, Wales; died 21 Sep 1327 in Beckeley Castle, Gloucestershire, England.

34. Margaret7 Princess of England (Henry6 III, King of England, John 5 Lackland , King of England, Henry4 II, King of England, Matilda3 Princess of England, Henry2 I, Beauclerc, King of England, William1 I, The Conqueror, King of England, RobertA I, the Devil, 6th Duke of Normandy, RichardB II, The Good, 4th Duke of Normandy, RichardC I, The Fearless, 3rd Duke of Normandy, WilliamD I, Longsword, 2nd Duke of Normandy, Rollo the DaneE Robert , 1st Duke of Normandy, RagnvaldF I, the Wise, Eysteinsson, Earl of More, GlumraG Eystein , the Noisy, Jarl of the Uplands, IvarH Oplaendinge , Jarl of the Uplands of Norway) was born 1240, and died 1275. She married Alexander III, King of Scotland 1251, son of Alexander and Mary de Coucy.

Notes for Alexander III, King of Scotland:

Alexander III (of Scotland) (1241-86), king of Scotland (1249-86), son of Alexander II and his second wife, Mary of Coucy. In 1251 Alexander married Margaret, the daughter of King Henry III of England, and the English repeatedly attempted to interfere in Scottish affairs during his minority. He successfully resisted an invasion by King Håkon IV of Norway at the battle of Largs (1263), and in 1266 he forced Håkon's successor, Magnus VI, to surrender the Isle of Man and the Hebrides Islands to Scotland. Alexander was succeeded by his granddaughter Margaret, the Maid of Norway.

Child of Princess Margaret and Alexander is:

+ 38 i. Princess of Scotland8 Margaret, born Aft. 1268; died 1283.

35. Eleanor7 Longespée (Stephen6, William5 de Longespée , Earl of Salisbury, Henry4 II, King of England, Matilda3 Princess of England, Henry2 I, Beauclerc, King of England, William1 I, The Conqueror, King of England, RobertA I, the Devil, 6th Duke of Normandy, RichardB II, The Good, 4th Duke of Normandy, RichardC I, The Fearless, 3rd Duke of Normandy, WilliamD I, Longsword, 2nd Duke of Normandy, Rollo the DaneE Robert , 1st Duke of Normandy, RagnvaldF I, the Wise, Eysteinsson, Earl of More, GlumraG Eystein , the Noisy, Jarl of the Uplands, IvarH Oplaendinge , Jarl of the Uplands of Norway) was born ABT 1245, and died WFT Est. 1271-1339. She married Roger La Zouche WFT Est. 1261-1280, son of Alan La Zouche and Helen de Quincy.

Child of Eleanor Longespée and Roger La Zouche is:

+ 39 i. Alan8 La Zouche , Sir, 1st Baron of Ashby, born 1267 in Ashley, Leistershire, England; died 25 Mar 1314 in Brackley, England.

 


Generation No. 8

37. Edward8 II, King of England (Edward7 I, Longshanks, King of England, Henry6 III, King of England, John5 Lackland, King of England, Henry4 II, King of England, Matilda3 Princess of England, Henry2 I, Beauclerc, King of England, William1 I, The Conqueror, King of England, RobertA I, the Devil, 6th Duke of Normandy, RichardB II, The Good, 4th Duke of Normandy, RichardC I, The Fearless, 3rd Duke of Normandy, WilliamD I, Longsword, 2nd Duke of Normandy, Rollo the DaneE Robert , 1st Duke of Normandy, RagnvaldF I, the Wise, Eysteinsson, Earl of More, GlumraG Eystein , the Noisy, Jarl of the Uplands, IvarH Oplaendinge , Jarl of the Uplands of Norway) was born 25 Apr 1284 in Caernarvon Castle, Wales, and died 21 Sep 1327 in Beckeley Castle, Gloucestershire, England. He married Princess of France Isabella 22 Jan 1306/07, daughter of Philip IV, King of France.

Notes for Edward II, King of England:

Edward II (1284-1327), Plantagenet King of England (1307-1327), whose incompetence and distaste for government finally led to his deposition and murder.

Edward was born on April 25, 1284, at Caernarvon, Wales, the fourth son of King Edward I and his first wife, Eleanor of Castile. The deaths of his older brothers made the infant prince heir to the throne; in 1301 he was proclaimed prince of Wales, the first heir apparent in English history to bear that title. The prince was idle and frivolous, with no liking for military campaigning or affairs of state. Believing that the prince's close friend Piers Gaveston, a Gascon knight, was a bad influence on the prince, Edward I banished Gaveston. On his father's death, however, Edward II recalled his favorite. Gaveston incurred the opposition of the powerful English barony. The nobles were particularly angered in 1308, when Edward made Gaveston regent for the period of the king's absence in France, where he went to marry Isabella, daughter of King Philip IV. In 1311 the barons, led by Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, forced the king to appoint from among them a committee of 21 nobles and prelates, called the lords ordainers. They proclaimed a series of ordinances that transferred the ruling power to themselves and excluded the commons and lower clergy from Parliament. After they had twice forced the king to banish Gaveston, and the king had each time recalled him, the barons finally had the king's favorite kidnapped and executed.

In the meantime, Robert Bruce had almost completed his reconquest of Scotland, which he had begun shortly after 1305. In 1314 Edward II and his barons raised an army of some 100,000 men with which to crush Bruce, but in the attempt to lift the siege of Stirling they were decisively defeated (see Battle of Bannockburn). For the following eight years the Earl of Lancaster virtually ruled the kingdom. In 1322, however, with the advice and help of two new royal favorites, the baron Hugh le Despenser, and his son, also Hugh le Despenser, Edward defeated Lancaster in battle and had him executed. The le Despensers thereupon became de facto rulers of England. They summoned a Parliament in which the commons were included and which repealed the ordinances of 1311 on the ground that they had been passed by the barons only. The repeal was a great step forward in English constitutional development, for it meant that thenceforth no law passed by Parliament was valid unless the House of Commons approved it.

Edward again futilely invaded Scotland in 1322, and in 1323 signed a 13-year truce with Bruce. In 1325 Queen Isabella accompanied the Prince of Wales to France, where, in accordance with feudal custom, he did homage to King Charles IV for the fief of Aquitaine. Isabella, who desired to depose the le Despensers, allied herself with some barons who had been exiled by Edward. In 1326, with their leader, Roger de Mortimer, Isabella raised an army and invaded England. Edward and his favorites fled, but his wife's army pursued and executed the le Despensers and imprisoned Edward. In January 1327, Parliament forced Edward to resign and proclaimed the prince of Wales, Edward III as king. On September 21 of that year Edward II was murdered by his captors at Berkeley Castle, Gloucestershire.

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Children of Edward and Princess Isabella are:

+ 40 i. Edward9 III, King of England, born 13 Nov 1312 in Windsor Castle, England; died 21 Jun 1377 in Shene (now Richmond), England.

41 ii. Princess of England Joan, born Aft. 1324; died 1362. She married David II, King of Scotland ABT 1328.

Notes for David II, King of Scotland:

David II (1324-71), king of Scotland (1329-71), son of King Robert Bruce. He succeeded his father at only five years of age, but soon after his coronation (1331) he was deposed by Edward de Baliol, an English-backed claimant to the throne. For the next eight years David lived in exile in France. In 1341 he returned to Scotland, and five years later went to war with England as an ally of France. The English defeated both the French (at Crécy) and the Scots (at Neville's Cross, October 1346), taking David prisoner and capturing large parts of Scotland and France. David remained a prisoner in England for 11 years. In 1357 he was freed in return for the promise of a ransom, and thereafter enjoyed friendly relations with the English. David was succeeded by his nephew Robert II, founder of the Stuart dynasty.

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38. Margaret8 Princess of Scotland (Princess of England7, Henry6 III, King of England, John5 Lackland , King of England, Henry4 II, King of England, Matilda3 Princess of England, Henry2 I, Beauclerc, King of England, William1 I, The Conqueror, King of England, RobertA I, the Devil, 6th Duke of Normandy, RichardB II, The Good, 4th Duke of Normandy, RichardC I, The Fearless, 3rd Duke of Normandy, WilliamD I, Longsword, 2nd Duke of Normandy, Rollo the DaneE Robert , 1st Duke of Normandy, RagnvaldF I, the Wise, Eysteinsson, Earl of More, GlumraG Eystein , the Noisy, Jarl of the Uplands, IvarH Oplaendinge , Jarl of the Uplands of Norway) was born Aft. 1268, and died 1283. She married Eric II, Magnusson, King of Norway.

Child of Princess Margaret and Eric is:

42 i. the Maid of Norway9 Margaret, born 1283; died 1290 in at sea.

Notes for the Maid of Norway Margaret:

The death of Margaret, the Maid of Norway, during her voyage to Scotland, resulted in over twelve contenders for the Scottish Crown coming forward, of which John Balliol and Robert Bruce made the best claims. The Crown was awarded to John Balliol and remained in the House of Balliol for only a short period of time before going to the House of Bruce, and later to the House of Stewart.

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39. Alan8 La Zouche , Sir, 1st Baron of Ashby (Eleanor7 Longespée, Stephen6, William5 de Longespée , Earl of Salisbury, Henry4 II, King of England, Princess of England3 Matilda, Henry2 I, Beauclerc, King of England, William1 I, The Conqueror, King of England, RobertA I, the Devil, 6th Duke of Normandy, RichardB II, The Good, 4th Duke of Normandy, RichardC I, The Fearless, 3rd Duke of Normandy, WilliamD I, Longsword, 2nd Duke of Normandy, Rollo the DaneE Robert , 1st Duke of Normandy, RagnvaldF I, the Wise, Eysteinsson, Earl of More, GlumraG Eystein , the Noisy, Jarl of the Uplands, IvarH Oplaendinge , Jarl of the Uplands of Norway) was born 1267 in Ashley, Leistershire, England, and died 25 Mar 1314 in Brackley, England. He married Eleanor Seagrave ABT 1287, daughter of Nicholas de Seagrave and Maude de Lucy.

Child of Alan La Zouche and Eleanor Seagrave is:

+ 43 i. Maud9 La Zouche, born 1289 in Ashley, Leistershire, England; died 1349.

 


Generation No. 9

40. Edward9 III, King of England (Edward8 II, King of England, Edward7 I, Longshanks, King of England, Henry6 III, King of England, John5 Lackland , King of England, Henry4 II, King of England, Matilda3 Princess of England, Henry2 I, Beauclerc, King of England, William1 I, The Conqueror, King of England, RobertA I, the Devil, 6th Duke of Normandy, RichardB II, The Good, 4th Duke of Normandy, RichardC I, The Fearless, 3rd Duke of Normandy, WilliamD I, Longsword, 2nd Duke of Normandy, Rollo the DaneE Robert , 1st Duke of Normandy, RagnvaldF I, the Wise, Eysteinsson, Earl of More, GlumraG Eystein , the Noisy, Jarl of the Uplands, IvarH Oplaendinge , Jarl of the Uplands of Norway) was born 13 Nov 1312 in Windsor Castle, England, and died 21 Jun 1377 in Shene (now Richmond), England. He married Philippa of Hainault and Holland 24 Jan 1327/28 in York Minster, England.

Notes for Edward III, King of England:

Edward III (1312-77), king of England (1327-77), who initiated the long, drawn-out struggle with France called the Hundred Years' War.

Edward was born at Windsor on November 13, 1312, the elder son of King Edward II, of the house of Plantagenet. Involved by his mother, Isabella of France, in her intrigues against his father, he was proclaimed king after the latter was forced to abdicate in 1327. During Edward's minority, England was nominally ruled by a council of regency, but the actual power was in the hands of Isabella and her paramour, Roger de Mortimer. In 1330, however, the young king staged a palace coup and took the power into his own hands. His first step in asserting his rule, was to judicially murder Mortimer, his mother's lover, by plucking him out of his mother's bed, and then have him hanged through the Act of Attainder, and confining Isabella for the rest of her life to her home.

Edward began a series of wars almost directly after he had control of England. Taking advantage of civil war in Scotland in 1333, he invaded the country, defeated the Scots at Halidon Hill, England, and restored Edward de Baliol to the throne of Scotland. Baliol, however, was soon deposed, and later attempts by Edward to establish him permanently as king of Scotland were unsuccessful. In 1337 France came to the aid of Scotland. This action was the culminating point in a series of disagreements between France and England, and Edward declared war on Philip VI of France. In 1340 the English fleet destroyed a larger French fleet off Sluis, the Netherlands. The action resulted in a truce that, although occasionally disturbed, lasted for six years. This was the beginning of the Hundred Years War (it actually lasted 115 years until 1453).

War broke out again in 1346. Edward, accompanied by his eldest son, Edward the Black Prince, invaded Normandy and won a great victory over France in the Battle of Crécy. He captured Calais in 1347, and a truce was reestablished. Edward returned to England, where he maintained one of the most magnificent courts in Europe. The war with France was renewed in 1355, and again the English armies were successful. The Peace of Calais, in 1360, gave England all of Aquitaine, and Edward in return renounced his claim, first made in 1328, to the French throne.

Edward continued to assert his will both domestically and abroad. In 1363 he concluded an agreement with his brother-in-law, David II of Scotland, uniting the two kingdoms in the event of David's death without male issue. Three years later Edward repudiated the papacy's feudal supremacy over England, held in fief since 1213. He renewed his war with France, disavowing the Peace of Calais. Edward decided to claim the throne of France. This time, however, the English armies were unsuccessful. After the truce of 1375, Edward retained few of his previously vast possessions in France. The king had, by this time, become senile. He was completely in the power of an avaricious mistress, Alice Perrers, who, along with his fourth son, John of Gaunt, dominated England. Perrers was banished by Parliament in 1376, and Edward himself died at Sheen (now Richmond) on June 21, 1377. He was succeeded by his grandson, Richard II.

Funk and Wagnall's Encyclopedia

Children of Edward and Philippa Holland are:

+ 44 i. The Black Prince of Wales10 Edward, born 15 Jun 1330 in Woodstock in Oxfordshire; died 8 Jun 1376 in Westminster, England.

+ 45 ii. Lionel of Antwerp, born 1338; died 1368.

+ 46 iii. John of Gaunt , Duke of Lancaster, born Mar 1339/40 in Ghent, Flanders (now Belgium); died 3 Feb 1399/00 in Windsor Castle, England.

43. Maud9 La Zouche (Alan8, Eleanor7 Longespée, Stephen6, William5 de Longespée , Earl of Salisbury, Henry4 II, King of England, Princess of England3 Matilda, Henry2 I, Beauclerc, King of England, William1 I, The Conqueror, King of England, RobertA I, the Devil, 6th Duke of Normandy, RichardB II, The Good, 4th Duke of Normandy, RichardC I, The Fearless, 3rd Duke of Normandy, WilliamD I, Longsword, 2nd Duke of Normandy, Rollo the DaneE Robert , 1st Duke of Normandy, RagnvaldF I, the Wise, Eysteinsson, Earl of More, GlumraG Eystein , the Noisy, Jarl of the Uplands, IvarH Oplaendinge , Jarl of the Uplands of Norway) was born 1289 in Ashley, Leistershire, England, and died 1349. She married Robert de Holand , Sir Knight ABT 1311, son of Robert de Holland and Elizabeth de Salmesbury.

Child of Maud La Zouche and Robert de Holand is:

+ 47 i. Elizabeth10 de Holand, born 1320 in UpHoland, Lancaster, England; died WFT Est. 1344-1414.

 


Generation No. 10

44. Edward10 Edward The Black Prince of Wales (Edward9 III, King of England, Edward8 II, King of England, Edward7 I, Longshanks, King of England, Henry6 III, King of England, John5 Lackland , King of England, Henry4 II, King of England, Matilda3 Princess of England, Henry2 I, Beauclerc, King of England, William1 I, The Conqueror, King of England, RobertA I, the Devil, 6th Duke of Normandy, RichardB II, The Good, 4th Duke of Normandy, RichardC I, The Fearless, 3rd Duke of Normandy, WilliamD I, Longsword, 2nd Duke of Normandy, Rollo the DaneE Robert , 1st Duke of Normandy, RagnvaldF I, the Wise, Eysteinsson, Earl of More, GlumraG Eystein , the Noisy, Jarl of the Uplands, IvarH Oplaendinge , Jarl of the Uplands of Norway) was born 15 Jun 1330 in Woodstock in Oxfordshire, and died 8 Jun 1376 in Westminster, England. He married the Fair Maid of Kent Joan.

Notes for The Black Prince of Wales Edward:

Edward, called the Black Prince (1330-76), prince of Wales, who distinguished himself as a military leader during the Hundred Years' War.

Edward was born at Woodstock in Oxfordshire on June 15, 1330, the son of King Edward III of England. During his lifetime, he was called Edward of Woodstock; the name Black Prince was given him because of the black armor he wore. In 1346 Edward accompanied his father on the English campaign in Normandy, and during the Battle of Crécy, when he was only 16, the prince won high acclaim for his command of the right wing of the English army.

In 1355 Edward was appointed his father's lieutenant in Gascony. He led the English army in a series of raids across southern France and in 1356 defeated a French army at Poitiers, took King John II of France prisoner, and returned in triumph to England with his captive. In 1361 he married his cousin Joan, countess of Kent (1328-85) known as the fair maid of Kent. A year later his father created him prince of Aquitaine and Gascony, and he went to his domains in southern France. As lord of those lands, Edward became, under feudal law, a vassal of the French king.

During his rule the prince estranged the Gascon nobles, who believed that he was curtailing their feudal rights. After almost six years of peace, Edward, in 1367, led an expedition to Spain in order to restore Peter the Cruel, the deposed king of Castile, to his throne. During the successful Spanish campaign, Edward contracted an illness from which he never recovered; Peter furthermore refused to repay Edward the vast sums that had been expended on his behalf. On his return to Aquitaine, the prince levied taxes to pay for the expedition, but the disgruntled nobles protested to Edward's feudal lord, King Charles V of France. The prince refused to answer to the charges against him, and Charles renewed the war against England. A revolt against Edward spread through Aquitaine and Gascony, and despite his illness the prince led his troops against the city of Limoges, capturing it in 1370 and massacring its defenders. A year later he returned to England and resigned his principality.

During the last years of his life, Edward was a leader of the political faction that rebelled against the misrule of his younger brother, John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster. Edward finally succumbed to his illness and died at Westminster on June 8, 1376. He was buried in Canterbury Cathedral, in which parts of his armor still hang.

Funk and Wagnall's Encyclopedia

Child of The Edward and the Joan is:

48 i. Richard11 II, King of England, born 6 Jan 1366/67 in Bordeaux, France; died 14 Feb 1400/01 in deposed and murdered. He married (1) Anne of Bohemia. He married (2) Isabella of Valois.

Notes for Richard II, King of England:

Richard II (1367-1400), King of England (1377-99), whose reign was marked by national disunity and civil strife.

A younger son of Edward, Prince of Wales (the Black Prince), and Joan, called the Fair Maid of Kent. Richard was born January 6, 1367, in Bordeaux, France. He was created prince of Wales in 1376, the year of his father's death, and was placed in the care of his uncle John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster. In 1377, on the death of his grandfather, King Edward III, Richard became ruler of England, then a country devastated by plague and oppressed by heavy taxes, the result of a war with France. Parliament, which had obtained greater power in the last years of Edward III's reign, now sought to secure control of the government, but was opposed by John of Gaunt and his followers. The speedy suppression of Tyler's Rebellion in 1381 was largely the result of Richard's courage and daring. A year later, at the age of 15, Richard married Anne of Bohemia, daughter of the Holy Roman emperor Charles IV, and began to seek the downfall of the great nobles who controlled Parliament and prevented him from acting independently. Led by Richard's uncle Thomas of Woodstock, duke of Gloucester, in 1388 a coterie of noblemen known in history as the lords appellant "appealed" or accused Richard's adherents of treason, banishing some and having others executed. The following year Richard, with the help of John of Gaunt, succeeded in asserting his authority.

Trying to reestablish English authority in Ireland, Richard led an expedition to the country in 1394; that same year his queen died. In 1396 a marriage treaty was concluded between Richard and a French princess, Isabella. In 1397 Richard had Gloucester arrested and imprisoned at Calais, where he died, perhaps murdered. He also exiled John of Gaunt's son, Henry Bolingbroke, duke of Hereford, who later became Richard's successor as Henry IV, and executed or banished others of the lords appellant. On his return from a second military expedition to Ireland in 1399 Richard found that Bolingbroke had returned from exile and placed himself at the head of a formidable army. Richard was captured by Bolingbroke in Wales and brought captive to London, where on September 30, 1399, he formally resigned his crown. On the following day his abdication was ratified by Parliament, which then confirmed Bolingbroke as King Henry IV. Richard was secretly confined in Pontefract Castle, where he either died of starvation or was murdered in February 1400.

Funk and Wagnall's Encyclopedia

 

45. Lionel of10 Antwerp (Edward9 III, King of England, Edward8 II, King of England, Edward7 I, Longshanks, King of England, Henry6 III, King of England, John5 Lackland , King of England, Henry4 II, King of England, Matilda3 Princess of England, Henry2 I, Beauclerc, King of England, William1 I, The Conqueror, King of England, RobertA I, the Devil, 6th Duke of Normandy, RichardB II, The Good, 4th Duke of Normandy, RichardC I, The Fearless, 3rd Duke of Normandy, WilliamD I, Longsword, 2nd Duke of Normandy, Rollo the DaneE Robert , 1st Duke of Normandy, RagnvaldF I, the Wise, Eysteinsson, Earl of More, GlumraG Eystein , the Noisy, Jarl of the Uplands, IvarH Oplaendinge , Jarl of the Uplands of Norway) was born 1338, and died 1368. He married Elizabeth of Ulster.

Child of Lionel Antwerp and Elizabeth Ulster is:

+ 49 i. Countess of Ulster11 Philippa, born Aft. 1355; died Unknown.

46. John of10 Gaunt , Duke of Lancaster (Edward9 III, King of England, Edward8 II, King of England, Edward7 I, Longshanks, King of England, Henry6 III, King of England, John5 Lackland , King of England, Henry4 II, King of England, Matilda3 Princess of England, Henry2 I, Beauclerc, King of England, William1 I, The Conqueror, King of England, RobertA I, the Devil, 6th Duke of Normandy, RichardB II, The Good, 4th Duke of Normandy, RichardC I, The Fearless, 3rd Duke of Normandy, WilliamD I, Longsword, 2nd Duke of Normandy, Rollo the DaneE Robert , 1st Duke of Normandy, RagnvaldF I, the Wise, Eysteinsson, Earl of More, GlumraG Eystein , the Noisy, Jarl of the Uplands, IvarH Oplaendinge , Jarl of the Uplands of Norway) was born Mar 1339/40 in Ghent, Flanders (now Belgium), and died 3 Feb 1399/00 in Windsor Castle, England. He married (1) Blanche of Lancaster 1359, daughter of Duke of Lancaster Henry. He married (2) Constance of Castile ABT 1367, daughter of Pedro III, King of Castile. He married (3) Katherine Roet 1396, daughter of Payne Roet (Sir).

Notes for John of Gaunt , Duke of Lancaster:

John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster (1340-99), English soldier and statesman, the fourth son of King Edward III of England, and brother of Edward, the Black Prince. John was born in March 1340 in Ghent (M.E., Gaunt), now in Belgium. In 1359 he married Blanche, daughter of Henry, duke of Lancaster; when Henry died, John became duke.

John of Gaunt played an important part in the wars of the period between England and France and between England and Spain. He commanded a division of the English army, led by the Black Prince, that defeated the army of Henry (later Henry II, king of Castile and León) at Nájera in 1367. As a result of his second marriage, to Constance, daughter of Peter the Cruel (king of Castile and León), John laid claim to the throne of Castile. During the Hundred Years' War, he aided (1370-71) the Black Prince against France and established English rule over most of southern France. After a severe illness forced the return of the Black Prince to England, John took command of the English armies; by 1380 he had lost much of the territory the English had previously won. In 1386 John invaded Castile, but was defeated by John I, king of Castile and León. John of Gaunt gave up his claim to Castile and León in 1387, when his daughter married Henry, later Henry III, king of Castile and León.

John of Gaunt was also prominent in English affairs. Together with Alice Perrers, his father's mistress, John dominated the English government. He was opposed by Parliament and by the Black Prince. In 1376 Parliament banished Alice Perrers and curtailed John's powers. The death of the Black Prince that year and the dissolution of Parliament, however, enabled John to regain his power. In 1377, on the death of Edward III and the accession of Richard II (John's nephew and son of the Black Prince), John gave up his control of the government and thereafter played the role of peacemaker; he also supported the king, by whom he was made (1390) duke of Aquitaine. In 1396, after the death of his second wife, John married his mistress Catherine (Roet) Swynford, and Richard legitimized their children the following year. Saddened by the exile (1398) of his son, Henry of Lancaster (later King Henry IV of England), John died on February 3 of the following year.

Funk and Wagnalls Encyclopedia

Notes for Katherine Roet:

Katherine Roet was the daughter of Sir Payne Roet of Guienne, sister-in-law of Geoffrey Chaucer, and the widow, third wife, of Sir Hugh Swynford. All of her issue was legitimated by charter of Richard II, 1397.

Child of John Gaunt and Blanche Lancaster is:

+ 50 i. Henry11 IV, King of England, born Apr 1366 in Bolingbroke Castle; died 20 Mar 1412/13.

Child of John Gaunt and Katherine Roet is:

+ 51 i. John11 Beaufort , Earl of Somerset, born Aft. 1396; died 1410.

47. Elizabeth10 de Holand (Maud9 La Zouche, Alan8, Eleanor7 Longespée, Stephen6, William5 de Longespée , Earl of Salisbury, Henry4 II, King of England, Princess of England3 Matilda, Henry2 I, Beauclerc, King of England, William1 I, The Conqueror, King of England, RobertA I, the Devil, 6th Duke of Normandy, RichardB II, The Good, 4th Duke of Normandy, RichardC I, The Fearless, 3rd Duke of Normandy, WilliamD I, Longsword, 2nd Duke of Normandy, Rollo the DaneE Robert , 1st Duke of Normandy, RagnvaldF I, the Wise, Eysteinsson, Earl of More, GlumraG Eystein , the Noisy, Jarl of the Uplands, IvarH Oplaendinge , Jarl of the Uplands of Norway) was born 1320 in UpHoland, Lancaster, England, and died WFT Est. 1344-1414. She married William Botilier WFT Est. 1336-1366.

Child of Elizabeth de Holand and William Botilier is:

+ 52 i. Alice11 Botilier, born 1340 in Wemme; died WFT Est. 1372-1434.

 


Generation No. 11

49. Philippa11 Countess of Ulster (Lionel10 of Antwerp, Edward9 III, King of England, Edward8 II, King of England, Edward7 I, Longshanks, King of England, Henry6 III, King of England, John5 Lackland , King of England, Henry4 II, King of England, Matilda3 Princess of England, Henry2 I, Beauclerc, King of England, William1 I, The Conqueror, King of England, RobertA I, the Devil, 6th Duke of Normandy, RichardB II, The Good, 4th Duke of Normandy, RichardC I, The Fearless, 3rd Duke of Normandy, WilliamD I, Longsword, 2nd Duke of Normandy, Rollo the DaneE Robert , 1st Duke of Normandy, RagnvaldF I, the Wise, Eysteinsson, Earl of More, GlumraG Eystein , the Noisy, Jarl of the Uplands, IvarH Oplaendinge , Jarl of the Uplands of Norway) was born Aft. 1355, and died Unknown. She married Edmund Mortimer , 3rd Earl of March.

Child of Countess Philippa and Edmund Mortimer is:

+ 53 i. Roger12 Mortimer , Earl of March, born Bef. 1375; died 1398 in Ireland.

50. Henry11 IV, King of England (John10 of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster, Edward9 III, King of England, Edward8 II, King of England, Edward7 I, Longshanks, King of England, Henry6 III, King of England, John5 Lackland , King of England, Henry4 II, King of England, Matilda3 Princess of England, Henry2 I, Beauclerc, King of England, William1 I, The Conqueror, King of England, RobertA I, the Devil, 6th Duke of Normandy, RichardB II, The Good, 4th Duke of Normandy, RichardC I, The Fearless, 3rd Duke of Normandy, WilliamD I, Longsword, 2nd Duke of Normandy, Rollo the DaneE Robert , 1st Duke of Normandy, RagnvaldF I, the Wise, Eysteinsson, Earl of More, GlumraG Eystein , the Noisy, Jarl of the Uplands, IvarH Oplaendinge , Jarl of the Uplands of Norway) was born Apr 1366 in Bolingbroke Castle, and died 20 Mar 1412/13. He married Mary de Bohun.

Notes for Henry IV, King of England:

Henry IV (of England) (1367-1413), king of England (1399-1413), the first of the house of Lancaster.

Henry was born in Bolingbroke Castle in April 1367, the son of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster. He was also known as Henry of Lancaster and Henry of Bolingbroke. From 1387 to 1390 he was a leader of the party that opposed his cousin King Richard II. Henry subsequently fought with the Teutonic Knights against the Lithuanians and made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem. After his return to England he allied himself with the king. Because of a quarrel with Thomas Mowbray, 1st duke of Norfolk, in 1398, Henry was exiled for six years by Richard, who promised that Henry would not lose his inheritance. When Henry's father died, however, Richard confiscated the Lancastrian estates willed to Henry. Consequently, Henry raised an army, invaded England, and captured Richard, who later abdicated.

In 1399 Henry was elected king by Parliament. The following year he suppressed a revolt of nobles who supported Richard. The Scots and the Welsh, aided by the French, then began a rebellion against the English crown. The Scots were defeated (1402) at Humbleton Hill, but the Welsh continued the rebellion for seven years under the leadership of the Welsh chief Owen Glendower. In 1403 the Percy family rebelled against Henry because they were dissatisfied with the rewards for service he had bestowed upon them; they were defeated in the Battle of Shrewsbury in the same year. Wars and rebellions persisted after that date but diminished in number. During his reign Henry IV persecuted the religious sect known as the Lollards. He died in London on March 20, 1413, and was succeeded by his son, Henry V.

Funk & Wagnall's Encyclopedia

Child of Henry and Mary de Bohun is:

+ 54 i. Henry12 V, King of England, born 16 Sep 1387 in Monmouth; died 31 Aug 1422 in Vincennes, France.

51. John11 Beaufort , Earl of Somerset (John10 of Gaunt , Duke of Lancaster, Edward9 III, King of England, Edward8 II, King of England, Edward7 I, Longshanks, King of England, Henry6 III, King of England, John5 Lackland , King of England, Henry4 II, King of England, Matilda3 Princess of England, Henry2 I, Beauclerc, King of England, William1 I, The Conqueror, King of England, RobertA I, the Devil, 6th Duke of Normandy, RichardB II, The Good, 4th Duke of Normandy, RichardC I, The Fearless, 3rd Duke of Normandy, WilliamD I, Longsword, 2nd Duke of Normandy, Rollo the DaneE Robert , 1st Duke of Normandy, RagnvaldF I, the Wise, Eysteinsson, Earl of More, GlumraG Eystein , the Noisy, Jarl of the Uplands, IvarH Oplaendinge , Jarl of the Uplands of Norway) was born Aft. 1396, and died 1410. He married Margaret Holland.

Notes for John Beaufort , Earl of Somerset:

John Beaufort, Earl of Somerset, K.G., afterwards Marquess of Dorset, Lord High Admiral of England.

Child of John Beaufort and Margaret Holland is:

+ 55 i. John12 Beaufort , 1st Duke of Somerset, born Bef. 1410; died 1444.

52. Alice11 Botilier (Elizabeth10 de Holand, Maud9 La Zouche, Alan8, Eleanor7 Longespée, Stephen6, William5 de Longespée , Earl of Salisbury, Henry4 II, King of England, Princess of England3 Matilda, Henry2 I, Beauclerc, King of England, William1 I, The Conqueror, King of England, RobertA I, the Devil, 6th Duke of Normandy, RichardB II, The Good, 4th Duke of Normandy, RichardC I, The Fearless, 3rd Duke of Normandy, WilliamD I, Longsword, 2nd Duke of Normandy, Rollo the DaneE Robert , 1st Duke of Normandy, RagnvaldF I, the Wise, Eysteinsson, Earl of More, GlumraG Eystein , the Noisy, Jarl of the Uplands, IvarH Oplaendinge , Jarl of the Uplands of Norway) was born 1340 in Wemme, and died WFT Est. 1372-1434. She married Nicholas de Sandford WFT Est. 1356-1388, son of Richard de Sandford.

Notes for Nicholas de Sandford:

Additional information on the descendants Nicholas de Sanford is located on Brøderbund World Family Tree, Volume 8, Pedigree #3331. (Source: Diana Fitzsimons, Rockville, MD). This provided a vital link to Nicholas deSandford and his spouse, Alice Botilier. Alice is a descendant of Henry II, King of England, and links the Sanford family with the royal families of the United Kingdom and other royal families on the continent.

Dennis BeMent (November, 1997)

Children of Alice Botilier and Nicholas de Sandford are:

+ 56 i. Richard12 de Sandford, born ABT 1370 in Sandford, Shropshire, England; died ABT 1451.

57 ii. Griffin de Sandford, born ABT 1372 in Sandford, Salop, England; died Unknown.

58 iii. Nicholas de Sandford, born ABT 1374; died Unknown.

 


Generation No. 12

53. Roger12 Mortimer , Earl of March (Philippa11 Countess of Ulster, Lionel10 of Antwerp, Edward9 III, King of England, Edward8 II, King of England, Edward7 I, Longshanks, King of England, Henry6 III, King of England, John5 Lackland , King of England, Henry4 II, King of England, Matilda3 Princess of England, Henry2 I, Beauclerc, King of England, William1 I, The Conqueror, King of England, RobertA I, the Devil, 6th Duke of Normandy, RichardB II, The Good, 4th Duke of Normandy, RichardC I, The Fearless, 3rd Duke of Normandy, WilliamD I, Longsword, 2nd Duke of Normandy, Rollo the DaneE Robert , 1st Duke of Normandy, RagnvaldF I, the Wise, Eysteinsson, Earl of More, GlumraG Eystein , the Noisy, Jarl of the Uplands, IvarH Oplaendinge , Jarl of the Uplands of Norway) was born Bef. 1375, and died 1398 in Ireland. He married Eleanor of Kent.

Child of Roger Mortimer and Eleanor Kent is:

+ 59 i. Anne of13 March, born Bef. 1390; died Unknown.

54. Henry12 V, King of England (Henry11 IV, King of England, John10 of Gaunt , Duke of Lancaster, Edward9 III, King of England, Edward8 II, King of England, Edward7 I, Longshanks, King of England, Henry6 III, King of England, John5 Lackland , King of England, Henry4 II, King of England, Matilda3 Princess of England, Henry2 I, Beauclerc, King of England, William1 I, The Conqueror, King of England, RobertA I, the Devil, 6th Duke of Normandy, RichardB II, The Good, 4th Duke of Normandy, RichardC I, The Fearless, 3rd Duke of Normandy, WilliamD I, Longsword, 2nd Duke of Normandy, Rollo the DaneE Robert , 1st Duke of Normandy, RagnvaldF I, the Wise, Eysteinsson, Earl of More, GlumraG Eystein , the Noisy, Jarl of the Uplands, IvarH Oplaendinge , Jarl of the Uplands of Norway) was born 16 Sep 1387 in Monmouth, and died 31 Aug 1422 in Vincennes, France. He married Katherine of Valois 1420, daughter of Charles VI, King of France.

Notes for Henry V, King of England:

Henry V (of England) (1387-1422), king of England (1413-22), known for his victorious campaigns against France, born at Monmouth in August or September 1387. He was the son and successor of Henry IV. In 1403 Henry led the royal army that defeated the rebellious Percy family, led by Sir Henry Percy, at Shrewsbury. He also commanded the English forces that put down the revolt of the Welsh chief Owen Glendower. In 1410-11, when his father was incapacitated by illness, Henry headed the royal council, but was removed after a political quarrel with his father. On succeeding to the throne in 1413 Henry V restored Sir Henry Percy's son to his lands and titles; he also honorably reburied at Westminster Abbey the remains of Richard II, who had been deposed by Henry IV and had died in prison during the latter's reign. The new king continued his father's policy in persecuting the religious sect known as the Lollards and executed their leader, Sir John Oldcastle, in 1417.

In 1415 Henry warred against France, winning in that same year the Battle of Agincourt. The following year he allied himself with the Holy Roman emperor Sigismund, and in 1417 he began the conquest of Normandy, completing it with the capture of Rouen two years later. He concluded a peace treaty with Charles VI of France at Troyes in 1420, obtaining Charles's daughter, Catherine of Valois, in marriage and securing the promise of succession to the French throne on the death of Charles. When Henry returned to England in 1421, leaving his brother Thomas, duke of Clarence, as governor of Normandy, the French rose in opposition to English rule and defeated the duke. Henry returned to France for a third campaign, but he became ill and died. He was the most influential ruler in western Europe at the time of his death in Vincennes, France, August 31, 1422. He was succeeded by his son Henry VI.

Funk & Wagnall's Encyclopedia

Child of Henry and Katherine Valois is:

+ 60 i. Henry13 VI, King of England, born 6 Dec 1421 in Windsor, England; died 21 May 1471 in murdered at prayer, Tower of London.

55. John12 Beaufort , 1st Duke of Somerset (John11, John10 of Gaunt , Duke of Lancaster, Edward9 III, King of England, Edward8 II, King of England, Edward7 I, Longshanks, King of England, Henry6 III, King of England, John5 Lackland , King of England, Henry4 II, King of England, Matilda3 Princess of England, Henry2 I, Beauclerc, King of England, William1 I, The Conqueror, King of England, RobertA I, the Devil, 6th Duke of Normandy, RichardB II, The Good, 4th Duke of Normandy, RichardC I, The Fearless, 3rd Duke of Normandy, WilliamD I, Longsword, 2nd Duke of Normandy, Rollo the DaneE Robert , 1st Duke of Normandy, RagnvaldF I, the Wise, Eysteinsson, Earl of More, GlumraG Eystein , the Noisy, Jarl of the Uplands, IvarH Oplaendinge , Jarl of the Uplands of Norway) was born Bef. 1410, and died 1444. He married Margaret Beauchamp.

Child of John Beaufort and Margaret Beauchamp is:

+ 61 i. Lady Margaret13 Beaufort, born 1443; died 1509.

56. Richard12 de Sandford (Alice11 Botilier, Elizabeth10 de Holand, Maud9 La Zouche, Alan8, Eleanor7 Longespée, Stephen6, William5 de Longespée , Earl of Salisbury, Henry4 II, King of England, Princess of England3 Matilda, Henry2 I, Beauclerc, King of England, William1 I, The Conqueror, King of England, RobertA I, the Devil, 6th Duke of Normandy, RichardB II, The Good, 4th Duke of Normandy, RichardC I, The Fearless, 3rd Duke of Normandy, WilliamD I, Longsword, 2nd Duke of Normandy, Rollo the DaneE Robert , 1st Duke of Normandy, RagnvaldF I, the Wise, Eysteinsson, Earl of More, GlumraG Eystein , the Noisy, Jarl of the Uplands, IvarH Oplaendinge , Jarl of the Uplands of Norway) was born ABT 1370 in Sandford, Shropshire, England, and died ABT 1451. He married Maude Banastre.

Child of Richard de Sandford and Maude Banastre is:

+ 62 i. John13 Sandford, born ABT 1400 in Sandford, Shropshire, England; died Unknown.

 


Generation No. 13

59. Anne of13 March (Roger12 Mortimer , Earl of March, Countess of Ulster11 Philippa, Lionel of10 Antwerp, Edward9 III, King of England, Edward8 II, King of England, Edward7 I, Longshanks, King of England, Henry6 III, King of England, Lackland5 John , King of England, Henry4 II, King of England, Princess of England3 Matilda, Henry2 I, Beauclerc, King of England, William1 I, The Conqueror, King of England, RobertA I, the Devil, 6th Duke of Normandy, RichardB II, The Good, 4th Duke of Normandy, RichardC I, The Fearless, 3rd Duke of Normandy, WilliamD I, Longsword, 2nd Duke of Normandy, Rollo the DaneE Robert , 1st Duke of Normandy, RagnvaldF I, the Wise, Eysteinsson, Earl of More, GlumraG Eystein , the Noisy, Jarl of the Uplands, IvarH Oplaendinge , Jarl of the Uplands of Norway) was born Bef. 1390, and died Unknown. She married Earl of Cambridge Richard.

Child of Anne March and Earl Richard is:

+ 63 i. Duke of York14 Richard, born Aft. 1410; died 1460 in Battle of Wakefield.

60. Henry13 VI, King of England (Henry12 V, King of England, Henry11 IV, King of England, John10 of Gaunt , Duke of Lancaster, Edward9 III, King of England, Edward8 II, King of England, Edward7 I, Longshanks, King of England, Henry6 III, King of England, John5 Lackland , King of England, Henry4 II, King of England, Matilda3 Princess of England, Henry2 I, Beauclerc, King of England, William1 I, The Conqueror, King of England, RobertA I, the Devil, 6th Duke of Normandy, RichardB II, The Good, 4th Duke of Normandy, RichardC I, The Fearless, 3rd Duke of Normandy, WilliamD I, Longsword, 2nd Duke of Normandy, Rollo the DaneE Robert , 1st Duke of Normandy, RagnvaldF I, the Wise, Eysteinsson, Earl of More, GlumraG Eystein , the Noisy, Jarl of the Uplands, IvarH Oplaendinge , Jarl of the Uplands of Norway) was born 6 Dec 1421 in Windsor, England, and died 21 May 1471 in murdered at prayer, Tower of London. He married Margaret of Anjou 1445.

Notes for Henry VI, King of England:

Henry VI (of England) (1421-71), king of England (1422-61, 1470-71), the last of the house of Lancaster.

The son of King Henry V and Queen Catherine of Valois, Henry was born at Windsor on December 6, 1421. He never showed any aptitude for government, and throughout his reign the English court was dominated by competing aristocratic factions. Like his father, he claimed the crown of France, but France gradually freed itself from English control between 1430 and 1453. In 1445 Henry married a French princess, Margaret of Anjou. During the 1450s a group of nobles sought to replace him with Richard, duke of York, the next in line of succession to the throne. The resulting civil conflict between the houses of Lancaster and York, known as the Wars of the Roses, began in 1455. After intermittent fighting Henry was captured by the Yorkists at Northampton and was compelled to acknowledge Richard rather than his own infant son as successor. In 1460 Richard was killed by Henry's forces at Wakefield. Richard's son subsequently became leader of the Yorkists and proclaimed himself king as Edward IV.

Henry and his queen escaped to Scotland, where they remained until 1464. In that year he returned to take part in a rebellion against Edward but was captured (1465) and imprisoned in the Tower of London. He had suffered attacks of insanity all his life and was now completely incapacitated. Nevertheless, he became nominal ruler again in 1470. Dethroned the following year and returned to the tower by Edward, he died there on May 21, 1471, probably murdered on Edward's order.

Henry, who founded Eton College and King's College, University of Cambridge, was venerated by many as a saint because of his piety.

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History of Wars of the Roses: Wars of the Roses (1455-1485) is a name given later to a series of battles fought by two rival branches of the Plantagenet dynasty for control of the English throne in the 15th century. Each family had a rose as its emblem - white for the York family, red for the House of Lancaster.

The struggle started when Richard of York claimed the throne from the weak Lancastrian kings, Henry VI. In 1460 Richard captured Henry, and was made heir to the throne; but he was killed in the same year and the Yorkist claim passed on to Edward, Duke of York, who was crowned Edward IV in 1461.

In 1470, however, Henry VI was briefly restored to the throne by his cousin the Earl of Warwick. On Edward's death, his brother Richard III usurped the throne, but alienated Yorkists helped the only remaining Lancastrian claimant, Henry Tudor (later Henry VII), to defeat Richard at the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485.

He was crowned Henry VII and married Edward IV's daughter, Elizabeth of York, to put an end to the family rivalry.

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Child of Henry and Margaret Anjou is:

64 i. Prince of Wales14 Edward, born 1453; died 1471 in Battle of Tewkesbury. He married Anne Neville Bef. 1471.

61. Lady Margaret13 Beaufort (John12, John11, John10 of Gaunt , Duke of Lancaster, Edward9 III, King of England, Edward8 II, King of England, Edward7 I, Longshanks, King of England, Henry6 III, King of England, John5 Lackland , King of England, Henry4 II, King of England, Matilda3 Princess of England, Henry2 I, Beauclerc, King of England, William1 I, The Conqueror, King of England, RobertA I, the Devil, 6th Duke of Normandy, RichardB II, The Good, 4th Duke of Normandy, RichardC I, The Fearless, 3rd Duke of Normandy, WilliamD I, Longsword, 2nd Duke of Normandy, Rollo the DaneE Robert , 1st Duke of Normandy, RagnvaldF I, the Wise, Eysteinsson, Earl of More, GlumraG Eystein , the Noisy, Jarl of the Uplands, IvarH Oplaendinge , Jarl of the Uplands of Norway) was born 1443, and died 1509. She married Edmund Tudor , Earl of Richmond.

Notes for Edmund Tudor , Earl of Richmond:

Edmund Tudor, Earl of Richmond, son of Owen Tudor by Catherine, widow of (1) King Henry V, (2) Sir Henry Stafford, and (3) Thomas Stanley, Lord Stanley, who became the 1st Earl of Derby.

Child of Lady Beaufort and Edmund Tudor is:

+ 65 i. Henry14 VII, King of England, born 28 Jan 1456/57 in Pembroke Castle, Pembrokeshire, Wales; died 24 Apr 1509 in Richmond, Surrey, England.

62. John13 Sandford (Richard12 de Sandford, Alice11 Botilier, Elizabeth10 de Holand, Maud9 La Zouche, Alan8, Eleanor7 Longespée, Stephen6, William5 de Longespée , Earl of Salisbury, Henry4 II, King of England, Princess of England3 Matilda, Henry2 I, Beauclerc, King of England, William1 I, The Conqueror, King of England, RobertA I, the Devil, 6th Duke of Normandy, RichardB II, The Good, 4th Duke of Normandy, RichardC I, The Fearless, 3rd Duke of Normandy, WilliamD I, Longsword, 2nd Duke of Normandy, Rollo the DaneE Robert , 1st Duke of Normandy, RagnvaldF I, the Wise, Eysteinsson, Earl of More, GlumraG Eystein , the Noisy, Jarl of the Uplands, IvarH Oplaendinge , Jarl of the Uplands of Norway) was born ABT 1400 in Sandford, Shropshire, England, and died Unknown. He married Julean (Johanna or Anna) Corbet.

Child of John Sandford and Julean Corbet is:

+ 66 i. Richard14 Sandford, born ABT 1452 in Sandford, Shropshire, England; died ABT 1520.

 


Generation No. 14

63. Duke of York14 Richard (Anne13 of March, Roger12 Mortimer , Earl of March, Philippa11 Countess of Ulster, Lionel10 of Antwerp, Edward9 III, King of England, Edward8 II, King of England, Edward7 I, Longshanks, King of England, Henry6 III, King of England, John5 Lackland , King of England, Henry4 II, King of England, Matilda3 Princess of England, Henry2 I, Beauclerc, King of England, William1 I, The Conqueror, King of England, RobertA I, the Devil, 6th Duke of Normandy, RichardB II, The Good, 4th Duke of Normandy, RichardC I, The Fearless, 3rd Duke of Normandy, WilliamD I, Longsword, 2nd Duke of Normandy, Rollo the DaneE Robert , 1st Duke of Normandy, RagnvaldF I, the Wise, Eysteinsson, Earl of More, GlumraG Eystein , the Noisy, Jarl of the Uplands, IvarH Oplaendinge , Jarl of the Uplands of Norway) was born Aft. 1410, and died 1460 in Battle of Wakefield. He married Cecily Neville.

Children of Duke Richard and Cecily Neville are:

+ 67 i. Edward15 IV, King of England, born 28 Apr 1442 in Rouen, Normandy, France; died 8 Apr 1483 in Westminster, England.

+ 68 ii. Richard III, King of England, born 2 Oct 1452 in Fotheringhay Castle; died 7 Aug 1485 in Battle of Bosworth.

65. Henry14 VII, King of England (Lady Margaret13 Beaufort, John12, John11, John10 of Gaunt , Duke of Lancaster, Edward9 III, King of England, Edward8 II, King of England, Edward7 I, Longshanks, King of England, Henry6 III, King of England, John5 Lackland , King of England, Henry4 II, King of England, Matilda3 Princess of England, Henry2 I, Beauclerc, King of England, William1 I, The Conqueror, King of England, RobertA I, the Devil, 6th Duke of Normandy, RichardB II, The Good, 4th Duke of Normandy, RichardC I, The Fearless, 3rd Duke of Normandy, WilliamD I, Longsword, 2nd Duke of Normandy, Rollo the DaneE Robert , 1st Duke of Normandy, RagnvaldF I, the Wise, Eysteinsson, Earl of More, GlumraG Eystein , the Noisy, Jarl of the Uplands, IvarH Oplaendinge , Jarl of the Uplands of Norway) was born 28 Jan 1456/57 in Pembroke Castle, Pembrokeshire, Wales, and died 24 Apr 1509 in Richmond, Surrey, England. He married Elizabeth Plantagenet of York 18 Jan 1485/86, daughter of Edward and Elizabeth Woodville.

Notes for Henry VII, King of England:

Henry VII (of England), often called Henry Tudor (1457-1509), king of England (1485-1509) and first ruler of the house of Tudor, whose reign initiated a period of national unity following the strife of the 15th century.

Henry, the son of Edmund Tudor, earl of Richmond (1430?-56), and Margaret Beaufort, countess of Richmond and Derby (a direct descendant of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster), was born on January 28, 1457, in Pembroke Castle, Pembrokeshire. After the Yorkist king Edward IV seized the throne from the Lancastrian Henry VI in 1471, Henry Tudor, a Lancastrian, took refuge in Brittany. He became head of the house of Lancaster on the death of Henry VI in the same year. In 1483, taking advantage of the indignation aroused against Edward's successor, Richard III, whose nephews, Edward V and Richard, duke of York (1472-83), were murdered in the Tower of London, presumably on Richard's order, Henry crossed over to Wales, where he gathered an army of supporters. In 1485, at Bosworth Field in England, he met and defeated Richard, who was killed during the battle. Henry Tudor was subsequently crowned Henry VII in London. In the following year he married the Yorkist heiress, Elizabeth (1465-1503), eldest daughter of Edward IV, uniting the houses of York and Lancaster and ending the Wars of the Roses.

After his accession Henry had to contend with several Yorkist uprisings, notably one led by the English impostor Lambert Simnel (circa 1471-1534), who claimed to be Edward, earl of Warwick (1475-99), the last Yorkist claimant to the throne. The real earl of Warwick was actually imprisoned by Henry in the Tower of London at the time. Another revolt was led by the Walloon impostor Perkin Warbeck, who claimed to be Richard, duke of York, the younger of the murdered sons of Edward IV. Although both impostors had strong backing in England and abroad, their forces were defeated by Henry. In 1494 Henry sent the English statesman Sir Edward Poynings (1459-1521) to Ireland to reestablish English control in that country. Henry managed to maintain peaceful relations with Austria, Spain, and France throughout most of his years as king. The reorganization in 1487 of the Star Chamber was one of several means by which Henry strengthened the royal power over the nobles. He died in Richmond, Surrey, on April 21, 1509, and was succeeded by his second son, Henry VIII.

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Children of Henry and Elizabeth York are:

69 i. Prince of Wales15 Arthur, born 1486; died 1502 in Ludlow. He married Catherine of Aragon Jun 1501 in England.

Notes for Catherine of Aragon:

Catherine of Aragón (1485-1536), queen consort of England (1509-33), who, as the first wife of King Henry VIII, occupies a prominent place in history because the question of her marriage to Henry was a factor in the Reformation in England. She was the daughter of Ferdinand V and Isabella I, king and queen of Aragón and Castile. Catherine was born in Alcalá de Henares, Spain. Henry's father, King Henry VII, hoped to form a binding alliance with Spain when he negotiated the marriage of Catherine and his son Arthur, prince of Wales. She went to England in 1501 and was married in November, but Arthur died in April 1502. A few months later Henry VII arranged a second marriage for Catherine with his second son Henry, then 12 years old. A papal dispensation enabling Henry to marry the widow of his brother was obtained in 1503. Henry succeeded to the throne in April 1509 and in June he married Catherine.

Although the marriage was, on the whole, fairly successful, the pro-Spanish sympathies of Catherine brought some difficulties during the periods of French alliance. Catherine bore Henry six children, only one of whom, a daughter, later Queen Mary I, survived.

In 1527 Henry tried to annul his marriage to Catherine so that he could marry Anne Boleyn, who he hoped would give him a male heir to the throne. The pope refused to make a decision on the proposed annulment, and in 1533 Henry was married to Anne by the archbishop of Canterbury. In 1534 the pope finally declared that the first marriage was valid, thus bringing about the alienation of Henry VIII from the Roman Catholic church. Catherine did not quit the kingdom, but was thereafter closely guarded. During this time she displayed heroic courage and steadfastly refused to sign away her rights and those of Mary.

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+ 70 ii. Margaret Tudor , Princess of England, born 29 Nov 1489; died 18 Oct 1541 in Methven Castle, England.

+ 71 iii. Henry VIII, King of England, born 28 Jun 1491 in Greenwich Palace, London, England; died 28 Jan 1546/47 in Whitehall Palace, London, England.

+ 72 iv. Mary Tudor, born 1498; died 1533.

66. Richard14 Sandford (John13, Richard12 de Sandford, Alice11 Botilier, Elizabeth10 de Holand, Maud9 La Zouche, Alan8, Eleanor7 Longespée, Stephen6, William5 de Longespée , Earl of Salisbury, Henry4 II, King of England, Princess of England3 Matilda, Henry2 I, Beauclerc, King of England, William1 I, The Conqueror, King of England, RobertA I, the Devil, 6th Duke of Normandy, RichardB II, The Good, 4th Duke of Normandy, RichardC I, The Fearless, 3rd Duke of Normandy, WilliamD I, Longsword, 2nd Duke of Normandy, Rollo the DaneE Robert , 1st Duke of Normandy, RagnvaldF I, the Wise, Eysteinsson, Earl of More, GlumraG Eystein , the Noisy, Jarl of the Uplands, IvarH Oplaendinge , Jarl of the Uplands of Norway) was born ABT 1452 in Sandford, Shropshire, England, and died ABT 1520. He married Jane Peshall ABT 1468, daughter of Humphrey de Peshall and Helena Swynerton.

Child of Richard Sandford and Jane Peshall is:

+ 73 i. Hugh15 Sandford, born ABT 1470 in Sandford, Shropshire, England; died 1530.

 


Generation No. 15

67. Edward15 IV, King of England (Richard14 Duke of York, Anne13 of March, Roger12 Mortimer , Earl of March, Philippa11 Countess of Ulster, Lionel10 of Antwerp, Edward9 III, King of England, Edward8 II, King of England, Edward7 I, Longshanks, King of England, Henry6 III, King of England, John5 Lackland , King of England, Henry4 II, King of England, Matilda3 Princess of England, Henry2 I, Beauclerc, King of England, William1 I, The Conqueror, King of England, RobertA I, the Devil, 6th Duke of Normandy, RichardB II, The Good, 4th Duke of Normandy, RichardC I, The Fearless, 3rd Duke of Normandy, WilliamD I, Longsword, 2nd Duke of Normandy, Rollo the DaneE Robert , 1st Duke of Normandy, RagnvaldF I, the Wise, Eysteinsson, Earl of More, GlumraG Eystein , the Noisy, Jarl of the Uplands, IvarH Oplaendinge , Jarl of the Uplands of Norway) was born 28 Apr 1442 in Rouen, Normandy, France, and died 8 Apr 1483 in Westminster, England. He married Elizabeth Woodville 1 May 1464 in Grafton Regis, Northamptonshire, England.

Notes for Edward IV, King of England:

Edward IV (1442-83), Kng of England (1461-70; 1471-83), who established the house of York on the English throne.

Edward was born on April 28, 1442, in Rouen, France, the eldest son of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd duke of York. He inherited the title earl of March. During the Wars of the Roses, and following defeat in the Battle of Ludlow in 1459, Edward was driven from England by the Lancastrian king Henry VI. After his return to England and the death of his father in the Battle of Wakefield in 1460, Edward became head of the house of York. He defeated the Lancastrians in the Battle of Mortimer's Cross in 1461 and was acclaimed king by Parliament, which also declared Henry VI a usurper and traitor. Edward was crowned in June 1461. In giving thanks in person to the House of Commons, he set a historic precedent. Despite the civil war that continued intermittently until 1471, when all Lancastrian resistance was crushed and Henry VI was taken prisoner, Edward fostered the commerce of his realm. During his reign, printing and silk manufacturing were introduced in England.

Edward's marriage to Elizabeth Woodville, a commoner, and his efforts to create a new nobility more amenable to his interests, angered the older nobles and alienated Richard Neville, earl of Warwick, who had been a power behind his throne. arwick made an alliance with the Lancastrians and, in 1470, drove Edward from the throne and into exile in Holland. Henry VI again became king of England. Supplied with funds by his brother-in-law, Charles the Bold, duke of Burgundy, Edward returned to England in 1471, raised a large army, and won decisive victories over his enemies at Barnet and Tewkesbury. Thereafter the crown was securely in his possession. The later years of his reign were, for the most part, uneventful. The most notable incident of this period was a short war with France in 1475, which was terminated by an arrangement whereby King Louis XI agreed to pay Edward an annual subsidy. Edward died on April 8, 1483, at Westminster and was succeeded by his son Edward V.

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Children of Edward and Elizabeth Woodville are:

+ 74 i. Elizabeth Plantagenet of16 York, born 11 Feb 1464/65; died 1503.

75 ii. Edward V, King of England, born 2 Nov 1470 in Westminster, England; died Aug 1483 in Tower of London (murdered).

Notes for Edward V, King of England:

Edward V (1470-83), short-lived, uncrowned king of England (1483), the second of the house of York. Born at Westminster, the eldest son of King Edward IV, he was created prince of Wales in 1471. As a result of the power struggle between his paternal uncle Richard, duke of Gloucester, and his maternal uncle Anthony Woodville, 2nd Earl Rivers, both Edward and his brother, Richard, duke of York, were confined in the Tower of London shortly after their father's death in April 1483. They were not seen again outside the tower. Because the duke of Gloucester had them declared bastards and usurped the throne as Richard III in June 1483, it is reasonable to suppose that he had them assassinated. No circumstantial evidence exists, however. It is possible, for instance, that they survived Richard and were later slain by his successor, Henry VII of the house of Tudor, to whose title they would have been a threat. The belief that Richard instigated their murder was advanced by Tudor historians.

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76 iii. Duke of York Richard, born 1472; died Aug 1483 in Tower of London (murdered).

77 iv. Anne of York, born 1473; died 23 Nov 1511.

68. Richard15 III, King of England (Duke of York14, Anne13 of March, Roger12 Mortimer , Earl of March, Philippa11 Philippa, Countess of Ulster Lionel10 of Antwerp, Edward9 III, King of England, Edward8 II, King of England, Edward7 I, Longshanks, King of England, Henry6 III, King of England, John5 Lackland , King of England, Henry4 II, King of England, Matilda3 Princess of England, Henry2 I, Beauclerc, King of England, William1 I, The Conqueror, King of England, RobertA I, the Devil, 6th Duke of Normandy, RichardB II, The Good, 4th Duke of Normandy, RichardC I, The Fearless, 3rd Duke of Normandy, WilliamD I, Longsword, 2nd Duke of Normandy, Rollo the DaneE Robert , 1st Duke of Normandy, RagnvaldF I, the Wise, Eysteinsson, Earl of More, GlumraG Eystein , the Noisy, Jarl of the Uplands, IvarH Oplaendinge , Jarl of the Uplands of Norway) was born 2 Oct 1452 in Fotheringhay Castle, and died 7 Aug 1485 in Battle of Bosworth. He married Anne Neville Aft. 1471, daughter of Richard Neville , Earl of Warwick.

Notes for Richard III, King of England:

Richard III (1452-85), king of England (1483-85), of the house of York.

Richard was born on October 2, 1452, in Fotheringhay Castle, youngest son of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd duke of York, and was named duke of Gloucester in 1461. Richard fought for his brother, later King Edward IV, under the Yorkist banner during the Wars of the Roses. On the death of Edward in 1483, Richard took over the care of Edward's young heir, King Edward V, and the administration of the kingdom. Richard soon overthrew the unpopular party of the Woodvilles, relatives of the queen mother, who aimed to control the government. Parliament then declared that Richard was the rightful king, on the grounds that the marriage of Edward IV with Elizabeth Woodville had been illegal because he had contracted earlier to marry another woman. Richard, to ensure his position as king, confined Edward and his brother Richard to the Tower of London. There, some time afterward, both nephews were put to death. Except for later supposition, no substantial evidence exists that Richard had them assassinated.

The new king courted popularity with considerable success. He promoted English interests abroad and involved himself in domestic reform. Following the death of the young princes, however, public favor turned away from Richard and toward Henry, earl of Richmond, who was the head of the rival house of Lancaster. On August 7, 1485, Henry landed at Milford Haven, Wales, collecting allies as he advanced toward England. Richard hastened to meet him, and the hostile armies faced each other on Bosworth Field. Richard fought valiantly but was defeated and slain, and the earl of Richmond became Henry VII, the first Tudor king of England.

Although Richard, the last king of the house of York, did usurp the throne, little doubt exists that his unscrupulousness has been overemphasized by his enemies and by Tudor historians seeking to strengthen the Lancastrian position. His baseness is strongly exaggerated in Shakespeare's play Richard III.

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Child of Richard and Anne Neville is:

78 i. Prince of Wales16 Edward, born 1473; died 1484.

70. Margaret15 Tudor , Princess of England (Henry14 VII, King of England, Lady Margaret13 Beaufort, John12, John11, John10 of Gaunt , Duke of Lancaster, Edward9 III, King of England, Edward8 II, King of England, Edward7 I, Longshanks, King of England, Henry6 III, King of England, John5 Lackland , King of England, Henry4 II, King of England, Matilda3 Princess of England, Henry2 I, Beauclerc, King of England, William1 I, The Conqueror, King of England, RobertA I, the Devil, 6th Duke of Normandy, RichardB II, The Good, 4th Duke of Normandy, RichardC I, The Fearless, 3rd Duke of Normandy, WilliamD I, Longsword, 2nd Duke of Normandy, Rollo the DaneE Robert , 1st Duke of Normandy, RagnvaldF I, the Wise, Eysteinsson, Earl of More, GlumraG Eystein , the Noisy, Jarl of the Uplands, IvarH Oplaendinge , Jarl of the Uplands of Norway) was born 29 Nov 1489, and died 18 Oct 1541 in Methven Castle, England. She married (1) James IV, King of Scotland 1503, son of James and Margaret Denmark. She married (2) Archibald Douglas , Earl of Angus Aft. 1513. She married (3) Henry Stuart , Lord Methven Aft. 1527.

Notes for James IV, King of Scotland:

James IV (1473-1513), king of Scotland (1488-1513), who unified the country under his rule and, in spirit of the Renaissance, patronized arts and learning. He was the son of King James III. Within a few months after his accession he ended the revolt by Scottish nobles that had cost his father his life.

James expanded the Scottish navy, encouraged commerce, and reformed the administration of criminal justice. His romantic disposition induced him to support Perkin Warbeck, a claimant to the English throne, and to invade England in behalf of Warbeck in 1495. Two years later, however, a 7-year truce was concluded between Scotland and England. In 1503 James married Margaret Tudor, the eldest daughter of King Henry VII of England. This marriage eventually led to the union of the crowns of England and Scotland. James' marriage to Margaret Tudor brought six babies into the world, of which only two survived to a fruitful age; James and Alexander. After 1509, when Henry VIII became king of England, relations between the two countries became strained. Scotland was a traditional ally of France, and during Anglo-French hostilities in 1513 James invaded England in aid of his ally. Despite initial successes, he was plagued by desertions from his army, which was defeated at the Battle of Flodden on September 9, 1513. James himself was killed. He was succeeded by his son, James V.

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Child of Margaret Tudor and James is:

+ 79 i. James16 V, King of Scotland, born 10 Apr 1512; died 14 Dec 1542.

Child of Margaret Tudor and Archibald Douglas is:

+ 80 i. Margaret16 Douglas, born Aft. 1514; died 1578.

71. Henry15 VIII, King of England (Henry14 VII, King of England, Lady Margaret13 Beaufort, John12, John11, John of10 Gaunt , Duke of Lancaster, Edward9 III, King of England, Edward8 II, King of England, Edward7 I, Longshanks, King of England, Henry6 III, King of England, John5 Lackland , King of England, Henry4 II, King of England, Matilda3 Princess of England, Henry2 I, Beauclerc, King of England, William1 I, The Conqueror, King of England, RobertA I, the Devil, 6th Duke of Normandy, RichardB II, The Good, 4th Duke of Normandy, RichardC I, The Fearless, 3rd Duke of Normandy, WilliamD I, Longsword, 2nd Duke of Normandy, Rollo the DaneE Robert , 1st Duke of Normandy, RagnvaldF I, the Wise, Eysteinsson, Earl of More, GlumraG Eystein , the Noisy, Jarl of the Uplands, IvarH Oplaendinge , Jarl of the Uplands of Norway) was born 28 Jun 1491 in Greenwich Palace, London, England, and died 28 Jan 1546/47 in Whitehall Palace, London, England. He married (1) Catherine of Aragon Jun 1509, daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella. He married (2) Anne Boleyn 25 Jan 1533/34. He married (3) Jane Seymour 20 May 1536. He married (4) Anne of Cleves 6 Jan 1539/40 in Greenwich Palace, London, England. He married (5) Catherine Howard , Countess of Norfolk 28 Jul 1540. He married (6) Catherine Parr 12 Jul 1543.

Notes for Henry VIII, King of England:

Henry VIII (1491-1547), king of England (1509-1547), and founder of the Church of England. The son of King Henry VII, he profoundly influenced the character of the English monarchy.

Henry was born in London. On the death of his father in 1509, he succeeded to the throne. He then married his brother's widow Catherine of Aragón, having been betrothed to her through a papal dispensation secured in 1503. This union was the first of Henry's six marriages, which were affected by the political and religious conditions of the time and by the monarch's increasingly despotic behavior. At the beginning of his reign, Henry's good looks and hearty personality, his fondness for sport and the hunt, and his military prowess endeared him to his subjects. A monarch of the Renaissance, a period of renewed interest in the arts and learning, he entertained numerous scholars and artists, including the German painter Hans Holbein the Younger, who painted several famous portraits of the king and members of his court.

A Question of Divorce

In 1511 Henry joined in the Holy League against France, and in 1513 he led the English forces through a victorious campaign in northern France. Deserted by his allies, Henry arranged a marriage in 1514 between his sister Mary and Louis XII of France, with whom he formed an alliance. Louis's successor, Francis I, met Henry at a magnificently staged meeting on the Field of the Cloth of Gold in 1520, but no significant political decisions resulted from this meeting. In 1525 riots broke out in England in protest against Henry's attempt to levy taxes for military purposes, and he withdrew from major military activity in Europe.

In 1527 Henry announced his desire to divorce his wife, on the grounds that the papal dispensation making the marriage possible was invalid. The chief reason for the divorce, however, was that Catherine had failed to produce a male heir. Her only surviving child was Mary, later Mary I of England. In addition, Henry was in love with Anne Boleyn, a young and beautiful lady-in-waiting of the queen. Several obstacles, however, stood in the way of the divorce. Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, Catherine's nephew, strongly opposed the divorce, and Pope Clement VII, whom Charles had made a prisoner, could not invalidate the marriage without displeasing his captor. In 1528 the pope was persuaded to appoint the English cardinal and statesman Thomas Wolsey and Lorenzo Campeggio, a papal legate, to try the case in an English legatine court. In 1529, the pope summoned the case to Rome. When the prospect of securing a papal annulment seemed hopeless, Henry dismissed Wolsey and appointed Sir Thomas More. The latter, however, was reluctant to support the divorce.

The Break with the Papacy

Henry now proceeded to dissolve one by one the ties to the papacy. With the aid of parliamentary legislation, he first secured control of the clergy, compelling that group in 1532 to acknowledge him as head of the English church. In the following year Henry secretly married Anne Boleyn, who was crowned queen after Henry's obedient archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer, declared the marriage with Catherine void and that with Anne valid. An act of succession affirmed the declaration of the archbishop and established Anne's progeny as heirs to the throne. Anne's only surviving child, Elizabeth, later Elizabeth I, was born in 1533.

Although Henry was immediately excommunicated, he repudiated papal jurisdiction in 1534 and made himself the supreme ecclesiastical authority in England. The English people were required to affirm under oath Henry's supremacy and the act of succession. Sir Thomas More and the English cardinal John Fisher were executed for refusing to accept the religious supremacy of the English monarch. Henry dissolved the monastic communities and gave much of their property to the nobles in exchange for their support.

In 1536, after charging Anne Boleyn with incest and adultery, Henry had her executed. A few days after Anne's death, Henry married Jane Seymour, who died in 1537 after bearing Henry's only legitimate son, Edward, later Edward VI. A marriage was arranged in 1540 with Anne of Cleves in order to form a tie between England and the Protestant princes of Germany. Because Anne was unattractive and because Henry found the political alliance no longer to his advantage, he divorced her after several months and married Catherine Howard in the same year. She was executed summarily in 1542 for allegedly having been unchaste prior to marriage and having committed adultery. In the following year Henry married his sixth wife, Catherine Parr, who survived him.

Between 1542 and 1546 Henry was involved in war with Scotland and France. His troops defeated the Scots at Solway Moss in 1542. They captured Boulogne-sur-Mer from the French in 1544, and when peace was made in 1546 Henry received an indemnity from France. He died in London on January 28, 1547. Henry was succeeded by his son, Edward VI.

Effects of Henry's Reign

Although he altered the church, Henry did not wish to introduce Protestant doctrine. Those who refused to accept Church of England teachings as well as those who rejected Henry's authority over the church were executed. The licensing of an English translation of the Bible, the issuance of Cranmer's litany, and the translation into English of certain parts of the traditional service were the only important religious changes made during Henry's reign. In terms of the monarchy, he intensified the authoritarian elements characteristic of the Tudor dynasty to which he belonged. He developed a strong government that was used powerfully in the reign of Elizabeth I.

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Notes for Catherine of Aragon:

Catherine of Aragón (1485-1536), queen consort of England (1509-33), who, as the first wife of King Henry VIII, occupies a prominent place in history because the question of her marriage to Henry was a factor in the Reformation in England. She was the daughter of Ferdinand V and Isabella I, king and queen of Aragón and Castile. Catherine was born in Alcalá de Henares, Spain. Henry's father, King Henry VII, hoped to form a binding alliance with Spain when he negotiated the marriage of Catherine and his son Arthur, prince of Wales. She went to England in 1501 and was married in November, but Arthur died in April 1502. A few months later Henry VII arranged a second marriage for Catherine with his second son Henry, then 12 years old. A papal dispensation enabling Henry to marry the widow of his brother was obtained in 1503. Henry succeeded to the throne in April 1509 and in June he married Catherine.

Although the marriage was, on the whole, fairly successful, the pro-Spanish sympathies of Catherine brought some difficulties during the periods of French alliance. Catherine bore Henry six children, only one of whom, a daughter, later Queen Mary I, survived.

In 1527 Henry tried to annul his marriage to Catherine so that he could marry Anne Boleyn, who he hoped would give him a male heir to the throne. The pope refused to make a decision on the proposed annulment, and in 1533 Henry was married to Anne by the archbishop of Canterbury. In 1534 the pope finally declared that the first marriage was valid, thus bringing about the alienation of Henry VIII from the Roman Catholic church. Catherine did not quit the kingdom, but was thereafter closely guarded. During this time she displayed heroic courage and steadfastly refused to sign away her rights and those of Mary.

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Notes for Anne Boleyn:

Anne Boleyn (1507?-36), second wife of Henry VIII, king of England. She was the daughter of Sir Thomas Boleyn, later earl of Wiltshire and Ormonde. After spending the years 1519 to 1521 at the French court, Anne returned to England and was courted by the heir to the earldom of Northumberland and by the king himself. Henry married Anne secretly in January 1533, some months before Thomas Cranmer, archbishop of Canterbury, pronounced Henry's divorce from his first wife, Catherine of Aragón. Anne was crowned in June and in September gave birth to the future queen Elizabeth I.

On May 2, 1536, Anne was imprisoned in the Tower of London on charges of adultery with her brother, three gentlemen of the privy chamber, and a musician of the court and of conspiring with these men against the king's life. The four commoners were tried on May 12, and Anne and her brother on May 15; all were convicted of high treason. Whether Anne was guilty of these crimes has never been determined. It is known that Henry wanted to remarry. Anne's uncle, Thomas Howard, 3rd duke of Norfolk, presided over the judges who condemned her to death. No record of the evidence remains. On May 17, the musician was hanged, and the other four beheaded. Two days later, Anne was also beheaded. King Henry was betrothed to Jane Seymour the next day.

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Notes for Jane Seymour:

Jane Seymour (1509?-37), queen consort of England (1536-37) as the third wife of King Henry VIII. The sister of Edward Seymour, and probably born in Wiltshire, she served as a lady in waiting to Catherine of Aragón and later to Anne Boleyn, the first two wives of Henry. Less than two weeks after the execution of Anne Boleyn (1536), Jane privately married the king. She died on October 24, 1537, 12 days after the birth of her son, Edward, Henry's only male heir, later King Edward VI of England.

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Notes for Catherine Howard , Countess of Norfolk:

Catherine Howard (1520?-42), queen consort of England (1540-42) as the fifth wife of King Henry VIII. She was a granddaughter of Thomas Howard, 2nd duke of Norfolk. Before Catherine was 20 years old, she had frequent meetings with Henry, arranged by Stephen Gardiner, bishop of Winchester. Henry divorced his fourth wife, Anne of Cleves, on July 9, 1540, and married Catherine on July 28. In November 1541 she was accused of immoral conduct both before and during her marriage. She admitted to premarital relations, and her accusers produced witnesses to testify to her adultery. Two of her accused lovers were beheaded in December, and Parliament passed a bill of attainder against her. On February 13, 1542, she, too, was beheaded in the Tower of London.

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Child of Henry and Catherine Aragon is:

81 i. Mary16 I, Queen of England, born 18 Feb 1515/16 in Greenwich Palace, London, England; died 17 Nov 1558 in London, England. She married Philip II, King of Spain 25 Jul 1554 in Winchester Cathedral, London, England.

Notes for Mary I, Queen of England:

Mary I, called Mary Tudor (1516-58), queen of England (1553-58).

Mary was born in London on February 18, 1516, the daughter of Henry VIII of England, by his first wife, Catherine of Aragón. On the death of her half brother, Edward VI, on July 6, 1553, she became the legal heir to the throne. Lord High Chamberlain John Dudley, duke of Northumberland, however, favored the succession of his daughter-in-law, Lady Jane Grey. He proclaimed her queen on July 10, but the country supported Mary.

Mary began her reign by sweeping away the religious innovations of her father. Mass was restored without opposition and the authority of the pope reestablished, but Parliament refused to restore the church lands seized under Henry VIII. Mary, however, restored the property that the Crown still possessed. Even more disastrous was her marriage in 1554 to Philip II, king of Spain. The engagement was greeted in England by a formidable rebellion under the leadership of Sir Thomas Wyatt to depose Mary and put her half sister, Elizabeth, later Elizabeth I, on the throne. Philip was an uncompromising Roman Catholic and unpopular in England. At his order, Mary joined in a war against France, with the result that Calais, the last remnant of the English conquests won during the Hundred Years' War with France, was lost in 1558.

The ferocity with which Mary's personal character has been assailed by certain writers must be ascribed to religious zeal. She was called Bloody Mary because of a large number of religious persecutions that took place during her reign; almost 300 people were condemned to death as a result of trials for heresy. Mary died in London on November 17, 1558, and was succeeded by Elizabeth I.

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Notes for Philip II, King of Spain:

Philip II (of Spain) (1527-98), Habsburg king of Spain (1556-98), who ruled the country at the height of its power and influence and used that power in the service of the Roman Catholic church and the Counter Reformation. During his reign the Philippine Islands (named for him) were conquered and colonies were established in what is now the southern United States.

Philip was born in Valladolid on May 21, 1527, the son of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and Isabella of Portugal and was educated by Roman Catholic clergymen, whose influence shaped his policies as king. In 1543 he married his cousin Maria of Portugal; she bore him a son, Don Carlos, who later conspired against him. Philip married again in 1554, this time to Mary I of England, in whose religiously zealous reign he was an unmistakable influence.

Before succeeding to the throne of Spain upon his father's abdication in 1556, Philip had already received the duchy of Milan (1540), the kingdoms of Naples and Sicily (1554), and the Netherlands (1555) from his father. With the throne of Spain he also inherited extensive regions of the New World. Shortly after Philip's accession, the Spanish forces were victorious over the French at the battles of Saint-Quentin (1557) and Gravelines (1558), and the 60-year war with France was concluded by the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis (1559), which was highly favorable to Spain (see Cateau-Cambrésis, Treaty of). An outgrowth of the peace was Philip's third marriage to Princess Elizabeth of France, who had been betrothed to his son, Don Carlos. He married for the fourth time in 1570.

In the Netherlands Philip banned Protestantism and severely restricted the rights of the people. He used the Inquisition as a method of control, and thousands of Protestants were killed or exiled. In 1567 the Protestants revolted, and Philip sent an army to suppress them, thus beginning 80 years of war by which the northern provinces (now the Netherlands) won their independence.

In Spain Philip's oppression of the Moriscos (Christianized Muslims) provoked them to rebel in 1568; after suppressing the revolt in 1571, Philip exiled almost the entire group, to the great detriment of the country. In 1571 Philip sent his half brother John of Austria on a naval expedition that destroyed the Ottoman navy at the Battle of Lepanto (see Lepanto, Battle of). Asserting his claim to the throne of Portugal Philip conquered that country in 1580.

His desire to return the English to Catholicism, as well as to check their rival maritime power, led Philip to the decision to invade England, and to that end he ordered the construction of a great fleet (see Armada, Spanish). In 1588 he dispatched the Armada to the British Isles, where it was destroyed by bad weather and the English. From 1590 to 1598 Philip was again at war with France, aiding the Catholic forces of the Holy League in its war against the Huguenot Henry IV.

In 1563 Philip began the construction of El Escorial, a somber monastic palace outside Madrid, which ranks among Europe's finest architectural monuments. Completed in 1584, it became his second residence and he died there on September 13, 1598.

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Child of Henry and Anne Boleyn is:

82 i. Elizabeth16 I, Queen of England, born 7 Sep 1533 in Greenwich, England; died 23 Mar 1602/03 in London, England.

Notes for Elizabeth I, Queen of England:

Elizabeth I (1533-1603), queen of England and Ireland (1558-1603), daughter of Henry VIII, king of England, and of his second wife, Anne Boleyn. She was the last of the Tudor rulers of England. Although her legitimacy was questioned and never settled (because an act of Parliament [1536] invalidated the marriage of her parents and enabled Henry to marry his third wife, Jane Seymour), both Parliament and Henry named as heirs to this throne his children Edward, later Edward VI; Mary, later Mary I; and Elizabeth, in that order.

Childhood and Accession as Queen

Born in London on September 7, 1533, Elizabeth spent her childhood away from the court and received an excellent classical education under such scholars as Roger Ascham, who influenced her greatly. Henry's sixth wife, Catherine Parr, later became fond of the young Elizabeth and brought her back to court. She remained in Catherine's charge after Henry's death and took no part in the political intrigues following the coronation of her brother as King Edward VI. When Edward died, Elizabeth became a partisan of her sister Mary, refusing to support the revolt led by the English soldier and conspirator Sir Thomas Wyatts, Mary, a devout Roman Catholic, was made uneasy by the Protestantism of Elizabeth and her potential menace as an heir to the throne. In 1554, Elizabeth was imprisoned on the false charge of having been implicated in Wyatt's rebellion. She was later released, having outwardly professed Roman Catholicism, and regained Mary's favor.

At the death of Mary in 1558, Elizabeth became queen, beginning one of the greatest reigns in English history. At the time of Elizabeth's accession, England was torn by religious strife, was economically insecure, and was involved in a disastrous war with France. To these problems Elizabeth brought a thorough education, innate shrewdness, and a skill in diplomacy that she had constantly exercised during the reigns of Edward and Mary, when one mistake might have meant her death. Although she was excessively vain and capricious, her monarchial duties were always her primary concern. Her policies and her colorful personality made her extremely popular with her subjects. Elizabeth's statecraft was due, to a great extent, to her choice of able and wise advisers, most notably Sir Francis Walsingham and William Cecil, 1st Baron Burghley.

Religion was Elizabeth's initial problem as queen. She reverted to Protestantism immediately after Mary's death, and her first Parliament (1559) had a Protestant majority. Between 1559 and 1563, this Parliament passed religious legislation that became the doctrinal basis of the Church of England. In the Elizabethan Compromise (1559), the Church of England became the established church, and throughout Elizabeth's reign Roman Catholics and Puritans were persecuted.

A Popular Queen

Elizabeth's domination of the period to which her name became attached was due in part to the exuberant national spirit that she inspired and that characterized all England during the second half of the 16th century. She restored popular confidence in the monarchy, and a wave of prosperity swept every field of endeavor. With the religious question settled and the war with France concluded by the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis (1559), England was able to develop industrially and economically. Under Elizabeth's direction, the government began to regulate commerce and industry on a national scale. England grew to be a great maritime power with the exploits of such mariners as Sir Francis Drake and Sir Martin Frobisher. A new system of standard coinage was introduced in 1560 to replace the silver coins that had been considerably debased during the preceding three reigns. As a result, prices fell to normal levels and confidence in English money was restored. Foreign trade, encouraged by the government, became a great capitalistic enterprise. The Royal Exchange of London was opened in 1566, and the company of merchants that later became the English East India Company was chartered in 1600. Above all this activity stood the figure of Elizabeth. In the eyes of her subjects, Elizabeth was England.

From the beginning of her reign, Elizabeth's marital status was a political concern because there was no English heir to the throne. Parliament insistently petitioned her to marry, but she replied with the statement that she intended to live and die a virgin, and she became known as the Virgin Queen. Her statement did not prevent her from toying constantly with the idea of marriage. She was besieged by royal suitors, each of whom she favored when it was in her political interest to do so. Her affections, however, were bestowed on a succession of favorites, notably Robert Dudley, 1st earl of Leicester, Sir Walter Raleigh, and Robert Devereux, 2nd earl of Essex.

Elizabeth's most delicate political problem was that involving her Roman Catholic cousin, Mary, queen of Scots. Mary sought refuge in England after being defeated in battle by her half brother, James Stuart, earl of Moray. Elizabeth immediately imprisoned Mary because the Catholic monarchs of Europe and her own Catholic subjects considered Elizabeth illegitimate. By their reasoning, Mary was the lawful queen of England. Thus, to Elizabeth, Mary was the potential center of conspiracy. Mary was kept captive for years, giving rise to many plots by English Catholics for her release. When in 1586 Walsingham, then secretary of state, discovered a plot to assassinate Elizabeth and place Mary on the throne of England, Elizabeth reluctantly agreed to have Mary executed in 1587. The execution had serious results. Philip II of Spain had, for years, been troubled by the raids of English mariners on his colonial possessions. Because both Mary and Philip were Catholic, her death provided him with an added stimulus to prosecute the war with England that had been going on since 1585; he therefore sent a fleet to invade the country in 1588. The Spanish Armada, however, suffered an inglorious defeat, and England eventually took the place of Spain as the great colonizer of the New World and the reigning power on the seas. Moreover, by inflicting such defeat on Catholic Spain, England established Protestantism as a force in international politics.

End of an Era

Elizabeth's popularity waned toward the end of her reign because of her heavy expenditures and abuse of royal power. Moreover, her policies became weaker, her later ministers being less able than Cecil or Walsingham. The close of Elizabeth's reign was disturbed by a revolt in Ireland that was led by Hugh O'Neill. The 2nd earl of Essex, Elizabeth's favorite, unsuccessfully led an army against the Irish. When he returned to England, he led a revolt against the queen and was executed in 1601. Following his death, Elizabeth was disconsolate. She spent the last years of her life unhappy and alone, having outlived a glorious age, the beginning of the history of what would become modern England. She died in London on March 23, 1603.

In addition to being a time of political triumphs, the Elizabethan era was notable as one of the greatest periods of English literature. Edmund Spenser, Christopher Marlowe, and Shakespeare were only a few of the host of writers who created their great works under Elizabeth. The dramatic personality of Elizabeth became the subject of a voluminous literature.

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Child of Henry and Jane Seymour is:

83 i. Edward16 VI, King of England, born 12 Oct 1537 in Hampton Court, London, England; died 6 Jul 1553 in Greenwich Manor, East Greenwich, Kent, Enland.

Notes for Edward VI, King of England:

Edward VI (1537-53), king of England and Ireland (1547-53), the last in the male line of the house of Tudor.

Edward was born at Hampton Court on October 12, 1537, the only son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour, his third wife. He succeeded to the throne on the death of his father early in 1547. On his accession, his maternal uncle, Edward Seymour, 1st earl of Hertford, was named Lord Protector and duke of Somerset. In 1547 the Protector, in Edward's name, invaded Scotland, using as a pretext an alleged violation by the Scots of an agreement to give Mary, queen of Scots, in marriage to Edward. The English forces defeated the Scots at Pinkie in September of that year.

Both Edward and the Protector strongly favored the principle of the Reformation and did much to establish Protestantism in England. The body of edicts known as the Six Articles, enacted in the reign of Henry VIII, was repealed, and a new service book, the first Book of Common Prayer, was imposed in 1549. Although it was moderate in its approach, it was strongly opposed by Roman Catholics and stirred some uprisings. It subsequently, however, came into general use in the Anglican church.

In 1549 Somerset's attempt to help poor peasants by forbidding enclosure was thwarted by rich landowners, with the result that the peasants revolted. The opportunity was used by John Dudley, later duke of Northumberland, to remove Somerset from power. Edward was thereafter virtually controlled by Dudley, who in 1552 persuaded him to have Somerset executed for treason. The king became seriously ill of tuberculosis the year after. Shortly before Edward's death at Greenwich on July 6, 1553, Dudley induced him to sign a will depriving his half sisters, who later ruled as Mary I and Elizabeth I, of their claim to the royal succession. The right of succession then fell to Lady Jane Grey, who had married Dudley's son, but she was deposed by Mary a few days later.

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72. Mary15 Tudor (Henry14 VII, King of England, Lady Margaret13 Beaufort, John12, John11, John of10 Gaunt , Duke of Lancaster, Edward9 III, King of England, Edward8 II, King of England, Edward7 I, Longshanks, King of England, Henry6 III, King of England, John5 Lackland , King of England, Henry4 II, King of England, Matilda3 Princess of England, Henry2 I, Beauclerc, King of England, William1 I, The Conqueror, King of England, RobertA I, the Devil, 6th Duke of Normandy, RichardB II, The Good, 4th Duke of Normandy, RichardC I, The Fearless, 3rd Duke of Normandy, WilliamD I, Longsword, 2nd Duke of Normandy, Rollo the DaneE Robert , 1st Duke of Normandy, RagnvaldF I, the Wise, Eysteinsson, Earl of More, GlumraG Eystein , the Noisy, Jarl of the Uplands, IvarH Oplaendinge , Jarl of the Uplands of Norway) was born 1498, and died 1533. She married (1) Louis XII , King of France 9 Oct 1514. She married (2) Charles Frances Brandon , Duke of Suffolk 13 May 1515.

Notes for Louis XII , King of France:

Louis XII (1462-1515), king of France (1498-1515), son of Charles, duke of Orléans, born in Blois. Louis was imprisoned from 1487 to 1490 for rebellion against King Charles VIII of France. Louis was a popular king, and his financial and judicial reforms and the mildness of his rule earned him the epithet Father of the People. He led several armies in Italy, where he pursued a policy of French aggrandizement from 1499 until a coalition of powers compelled his withdrawal in 1513. He was succeeded by his son-in-law, Francis I.

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Child of Mary Tudor and Charles Brandon is:

+ 84 i. Frances16 Brandon, born 16 Jul 1517; died 1559.

73. Hugh15 Sandford (Richard14, John13, Richard12 de Sandford, Alice11 Botilier, Elizabeth10 de Holand, Maud9 La Zouche, Alan8, Eleanor7 Longespée, Stephen6, William5 de Longespée , Earl of Salisbury, Henry4 II, King of England, Princess of England3 Matilda, Henry2 I, Beauclerc, King of England, William1 I, The Conqueror, King of England, RobertA I, the Devil, 6th Duke of Normandy, RichardB II, The Good, 4th Duke of Normandy, RichardC I, The Fearless, 3rd Duke of Normandy, WilliamD I, Longsword, 2nd Duke of Normandy, Rollo the DaneE Robert , 1st Duke of Normandy, RagnvaldF I, the Wise, Eysteinsson, Earl of More, GlumraG Eystein , the Noisy, Jarl of the Uplands, IvarH Oplaendinge , Jarl of the Uplands of Norway) was born ABT 1470 in Sandford, Shropshire, England, and died 1530. He married Jane Dod, daughter of John Dod and Elizabeth Egerton.

Child of Hugh Sandford and Jane Dod is:

+ 85 i. Richard16 Sandford, born ABT 1490 in Sandford, Shropshire, England; died Aft. 1533 in Sandford, Shropshire, England.

 


Generation No. 16

74. Elizabeth Plantagenet of16 York (Edward15 IV, King of England, Duke of York14 Richard, Anne of13 March, Roger12 Mortimer , Earl of March, Countess of Ulster11 Philippa, Lionel of10 Antwerp, Edward9 III, King of England, Edward8 II, King of England, Edward7 I, Longshanks, King of England, Henry6 III, King of England, John5 Lackland , King of England, Henry4 II, King of England, Matilda3 Princess of England, Henry2 I, Beauclerc, King of England, William1 I, The Conqueror, King of England, RobertA I, the Devil, 6th Duke of Normandy, RichardB II, The Good, 4th Duke of Normandy, RichardC I, The Fearless, 3rd Duke of Normandy, WilliamD I, Longsword, 2nd Duke of Normandy, Rollo the DaneE Robert , 1st Duke of Normandy, RagnvaldF I, the Wise, Eysteinsson, Earl of More, GlumraG Eystein , the Noisy, Jarl of the Uplands, IvarH Oplaendinge , Jarl of the Uplands of Norway) was born 11 Feb 1464/65, and died 1503. She married Henry VII, King of England 18 Jan 1485/86, son of Edmund Tudor and Lady Beaufort.

Notes for Henry VII, King of England:

Henry VII (of England), often called Henry Tudor (1457-1509), king of England (1485-1509) and first ruler of the house of Tudor, whose reign initiated a period of national unity following the strife of the 15th century.

Henry, the son of Edmund Tudor, earl of Richmond (1430?-56), and Margaret Beaufort, countess of Richmond and Derby (a direct descendant of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster), was born on January 28, 1457, in Pembroke Castle, Pembrokeshire. After the Yorkist king Edward IV seized the throne from the Lancastrian Henry VI in 1471, Henry Tudor, a Lancastrian, took refuge in Brittany. He became head of the house of Lancaster on the death of Henry VI in the same year. In 1483, taking advantage of the indignation aroused against Edward's successor, Richard III, whose nephews, Edward V and Richard, duke of York (1472-83), were murdered in the Tower of London, presumably on Richard's order, Henry crossed over to Wales, where he gathered an army of supporters. In 1485, at Bosworth Field in England, he met and defeated Richard, who was killed during the battle. Henry Tudor was subsequently crowned Henry VII in London. In the following year he married the Yorkist heiress, Elizabeth (1465-1503), eldest daughter of Edward IV, uniting the houses of York and Lancaster and ending the Wars of the Roses.

After his accession Henry had to contend with several Yorkist uprisings, notably one led by the English impostor Lambert Simnel (circa 1471-1534), who claimed to be Edward, earl of Warwick (1475-99), the last Yorkist claimant to the throne. The real earl of Warwick was actually imprisoned by Henry in the Tower of London at the time. Another revolt was led by the Walloon impostor Perkin Warbeck, who claimed to be Richard, duke of York, the younger of the murdered sons of Edward IV. Although both impostors had strong backing in England and abroad, their forces were defeated by Henry. In 1494 Henry sent the English statesman Sir Edward Poynings (1459-1521) to Ireland to reestablish English control in that country. Henry managed to maintain peaceful relations with Austria, Spain, and France throughout most of his years as king. The reorganization in 1487 of the Star Chamber was one of several means by which Henry strengthened the royal power over the nobles. He died in Richmond, Surrey, on April 21, 1509, and was succeeded by his second son, Henry VIII.

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Children of Elizabeth York and Henry are:

86 i. Prince of Wales17 Arthur, born 1486; died 1502 in Ludlow. He married Catherine of Aragon Jun 1501 in England.

Notes for Catherine of Aragon:

Catherine of Aragón (1485-1536), queen consort of England (1509-33), who, as the first wife of King Henry VIII, occupies a prominent place in history because the question of her marriage to Henry was a factor in the Reformation in England. She was the daughter of Ferdinand V and Isabella I, king and queen of Aragón and Castile. Catherine was born in Alcalá de Henares, Spain. Henry's father, King Henry VII, hoped to form a binding alliance with Spain when he negotiated the marriage of Catherine and his son Arthur, prince of Wales. She went to England in 1501 and was married in November, but Arthur died in April 1502. A few months later Henry VII arranged a second marriage for Catherine with his second son Henry, then 12 years old. A papal dispensation enabling Henry to marry the widow of his brother was obtained in 1503. Henry succeeded to the throne in April 1509 and in June he married Catherine.

Although the marriage was, on the whole, fairly successful, the pro-Spanish sympathies of Catherine brought some difficulties during the periods of French alliance. Catherine bore Henry six children, only one of whom, a daughter, later Queen Mary I, survived.

In 1527 Henry tried to annul his marriage to Catherine so that he could marry Anne Boleyn, who he hoped would give him a male heir to the throne. The pope refused to make a decision on the proposed annulment, and in 1533 Henry was married to Anne by the archbishop of Canterbury. In 1534 the pope finally declared that the first marriage was valid, thus bringing about the alienation of Henry VIII from the Roman Catholic church. Catherine did not quit the kingdom, but was thereafter closely guarded. During this time she displayed heroic courage and steadfastly refused to sign away her rights and those of Mary.

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87 ii. Margaret Tudor , Princess of England, born 29 Nov 1489; died 18 Oct 1541 in Methven Castle, England. She married (1) James IV, King of Scotland 1503. She married (2) Archibald Douglas , Earl of Angus Aft. 1513. She married (3) Henry Stuart , Lord Methven Aft. 1527.

Notes for James IV, King of Scotland:

James IV (1473-1513), king of Scotland (1488-1513), who unified the country under his rule and, in spirit of the Renaissance, patronized arts and learning. He was the son of King James III. Within a few months after his accession he ended the revolt by Scottish nobles that had cost his father his life.

James expanded the Scottish navy, encouraged commerce, and reformed the administration of criminal justice. His romantic disposition induced him to support Perkin Warbeck, a claimant to the English throne, and to invade England in behalf of Warbeck in 1495. Two years later, however, a 7-year truce was concluded between Scotland and England. In 1503 James married Margaret Tudor, the eldest daughter of King Henry VII of England. This marriage eventually led to the union of the crowns of England and Scotland. James' marriage to Margaret Tudor brought six babies into the world, of which only two survived to a fruitful age; James and Alexander. After 1509, when Henry VIII became king of England, relations between the two countries became strained. Scotland was a traditional ally of France, and during Anglo-French hostilities in 1513 James invaded England in aid of his ally. Despite initial successes, he was plagued by desertions from his army, which was defeated at the Battle of Flodden on September 9, 1513. James himself was killed. He was succeeded by his son, James V.

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88 iii. Henry VIII, King of England, born 28 Jun 1491 in Greenwich Palace, London, England; died 28 Jan 1546/47 in Whitehall Palace, London, England. He married (1) Catherine of Aragon Jun 1509. He married (2) Anne Boleyn 25 Jan 1533/34. He married (3) Jane Seymour 20 May 1536. He married (4) Anne of Cleves 6 Jan 1539/40 in Greenwich Palace, London, England. He married (5) Catherine Howard , Countess of Norfolk 28 Jul 1540. He married (6) Catherine Parr 12 Jul 1543.

Notes for Henry VIII, King of England:

Henry VIII (1491-1547), king of England (1509-1547), and founder of the Church of England. The son of King Henry VII, he profoundly influenced the character of the English monarchy.

Henry was born in London. On the death of his father in 1509, he succeeded to the throne. He then married his brother's widow Catherine of Aragón, having been betrothed to her through a papal dispensation secured in 1503. This union was the first of Henry's six marriages, which were affected by the political and religious conditions of the time and by the monarch's increasingly despotic behavior. At the beginning of his reign, Henry's good looks and hearty personality, his fondness for sport and the hunt, and his military prowess endeared him to his subjects. A monarch of the Renaissance, a period of renewed interest in the arts and learning, he entertained numerous scholars and artists, including the German painter Hans Holbein the Younger, who painted several famous portraits of the king and members of his court.

A Question of Divorce

In 1511 Henry joined in the Holy League against France, and in 1513 he led the English forces through a victorious campaign in northern France. Deserted by his allies, Henry arranged a marriage in 1514 between his sister Mary and Louis XII of France, with whom he formed an alliance. Louis's successor, Francis I, met Henry at a magnificently staged meeting on the Field of the Cloth of Gold in 1520, but no significant political decisions resulted from this meeting. In 1525 riots broke out in England in protest against Henry's attempt to levy taxes for military purposes, and he withdrew from major military activity in Europe.

In 1527 Henry announced his desire to divorce his wife, on the grounds that the papal dispensation making the marriage possible was invalid. The chief reason for the divorce, however, was that Catherine had failed to produce a male heir. Her only surviving child was Mary, later Mary I of England. In addition, Henry was in love with Anne Boleyn, a young and beautiful lady-in-waiting of the queen. Several obstacles, however, stood in the way of the divorce. Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, Catherine's nephew, strongly opposed the divorce, and Pope Clement VII, whom Charles had made a prisoner, could not invalidate the marriage without displeasing his captor. In 1528 the pope was persuaded to appoint the English cardinal and statesman Thomas Wolsey and Lorenzo Campeggio, a papal legate, to try the case in an English legatine court. In 1529, the pope summoned the case to Rome. When the prospect of securing a papal annulment seemed hopeless, Henry dismissed Wolsey and appointed Sir Thomas More. The latter, however, was reluctant to support the divorce.

The Break with the Papacy

Henry now proceeded to dissolve one by one the ties to the papacy. With the aid of parliamentary legislation, he first secured control of the clergy, compelling that group in 1532 to acknowledge him as head of the English church. In the following year Henry secretly married Anne Boleyn, who was crowned queen after Henry's obedient archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer, declared the marriage with Catherine void and that with Anne valid. An act of succession affirmed the declaration of the archbishop and established Anne's progeny as heirs to the throne. Anne's only surviving child, Elizabeth, later Elizabeth I, was born in 1533.

Although Henry was immediately excommunicated, he repudiated papal jurisdiction in 1534 and made himself the supreme ecclesiastical authority in England. The English people were required to affirm under oath Henry's supremacy and the act of succession. Sir Thomas More and the English cardinal John Fisher were executed for refusing to accept the religious supremacy of the English monarch. Henry dissolved the monastic communities and gave much of their property to the nobles in exchange for their support.

In 1536, after charging Anne Boleyn with incest and adultery, Henry had her executed. A few days after Anne's death, Henry married Jane Seymour, who died in 1537 after bearing Henry's only legitimate son, Edward, later Edward VI. A marriage was arranged in 1540 with Anne of Cleves in order to form a tie between England and the Protestant princes of Germany. Because Anne was unattractive and because Henry found the political alliance no longer to his advantage, he divorced her after several months and married Catherine Howard in the same year. She was executed summarily in 1542 for allegedly having been unchaste prior to marriage and having committed adultery. In the following year Henry married his sixth wife, Catherine Parr, who survived him.

Between 1542 and 1546 Henry was involved in war with Scotland and France. His troops defeated the Scots at Solway Moss in 1542. They captured Boulogne-sur-Mer from the French in 1544, and when peace was made in 1546 Henry received an indemnity from France. He died in London on January 28, 1547. Henry was succeeded by his son, Edward VI.

Effects of Henry's Reign

Although he altered the church, Henry did not wish to introduce Protestant doctrine. Those who refused to accept Church of England teachings as well as those who rejected Henry's authority over the church were executed. The licensing of an English translation of the Bible, the issuance of Cranmer's litany, and the translation into English of certain parts of the traditional service were the only important religious changes made during Henry's reign. In terms of the monarchy, he intensified the authoritarian elements characteristic of the Tudor dynasty to which he belonged. He developed a strong government that was used powerfully in the reign of Elizabeth I.

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Notes for Catherine of Aragon:

Catherine of Aragón (1485-1536), queen consort of England (1509-33), who, as the first wife of King Henry VIII, occupies a prominent place in history because the question of her marriage to Henry was a factor in the Reformation in England. She was the daughter of Ferdinand V and Isabella I, king and queen of Aragón and Castile. Catherine was born in Alcalá de Henares, Spain. Henry's father, King Henry VII, hoped to form a binding alliance with Spain when he negotiated the marriage of Catherine and his son Arthur, prince of Wales. She went to England in 1501 and was married in November, but Arthur died in April 1502. A few months later Henry VII arranged a second marriage for Catherine with his second son Henry, then 12 years old. A papal dispensation enabling Henry to marry the widow of his brother was obtained in 1503. Henry succeeded to the throne in April 1509 and in June he married Catherine.

Although the marriage was, on the whole, fairly successful, the pro-Spanish sympathies of Catherine brought some difficulties during the periods of French alliance. Catherine bore Henry six children, only one of whom, a daughter, later Queen Mary I, survived.

In 1527 Henry tried to annul his marriage to Catherine so that he could marry Anne Boleyn, who he hoped would give him a male heir to the throne. The pope refused to make a decision on the proposed annulment, and in 1533 Henry was married to Anne by the archbishop of Canterbury. In 1534 the pope finally declared that the first marriage was valid, thus bringing about the alienation of Henry VIII from the Roman Catholic church. Catherine did not quit the kingdom, but was thereafter closely guarded. During this time she displayed heroic courage and steadfastly refused to sign away her rights and those of Mary.

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Notes for Anne Boleyn:

Anne Boleyn (1507?-36), second wife of Henry VIII, king of England. She was the daughter of Sir Thomas Boleyn, later earl of Wiltshire and Ormonde. After spending the years 1519 to 1521 at the French court, Anne returned to England and was courted by the heir to the earldom of Northumberland and by the king himself. Henry married Anne secretly in January 1533, some months before Thomas Cranmer, archbishop of Canterbury, pronounced Henry's divorce from his first wife, Catherine of Aragón. Anne was crowned in June and in September gave birth to the future queen Elizabeth I.

On May 2, 1536, Anne was imprisoned in the Tower of London on charges of adultery with her brother, three gentlemen of the privy chamber, and a musician of the court and of conspiring with these men against the king's life. The four commoners were tried on May 12, and Anne and her brother on May 15; all were convicted of high treason. Whether Anne was guilty of these crimes has never been determined. It is known that Henry wanted to remarry. Anne's uncle, Thomas Howard, 3rd duke of Norfolk, presided over the judges who condemned her to death. No record of the evidence remains. On May 17, the musician was hanged, and the other four beheaded. Two days later, Anne was also beheaded. King Henry was betrothed to Jane Seymour the next day.

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Notes for Jane Seymour:

Jane Seymour (1509?-37), queen consort of England (1536-37) as the third wife of King Henry VIII. The sister of Edward Seymour, and probably born in Wiltshire, she served as a lady in waiting to Catherine of Aragón and later to Anne Boleyn, the first two wives of Henry. Less than two weeks after the execution of Anne Boleyn (1536), Jane privately married the king. She died on October 24, 1537, 12 days after the birth of her son, Edward, Henry's only male heir, later King Edward VI of England.

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Notes for Catherine Howard , Countess of Norfolk:

Catherine Howard (1520?-42), queen consort of England (1540-42) as the fifth wife of King Henry VIII. She was a granddaughter of Thomas Howard, 2nd duke of Norfolk. Before Catherine was 20 years old, she had frequent meetings with Henry, arranged by Stephen Gardiner, bishop of Winchester. Henry divorced his fourth wife, Anne of Cleves, on July 9, 1540, and married Catherine on July 28. In November 1541 she was accused of immoral conduct both before and during her marriage. She admitted to premarital relations, and her accusers produced witnesses to testify to her adultery. Two of her accused lovers were beheaded in December, and Parliament passed a bill of attainder against her. On February 13, 1542, she, too, was beheaded in the Tower of London.

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89 iv. Mary Tudor, born 1498; died 1533. She married (1) Louis XII , King of France 9 Oct 1514. She married (2) Charles Frances Brandon , Duke of Suffolk 13 May 1515.

Notes for Louis XII , King of France:

Louis XII (1462-1515), king of France (1498-1515), son of Charles, duke of Orléans, born in Blois. Louis was imprisoned from 1487 to 1490 for rebellion against King Charles VIII of France. Louis was a popular king, and his financial and judicial reforms and the mildness of his rule earned him the epithet Father of the People. He led several armies in Italy, where he pursued a policy of French aggrandizement from 1499 until a coalition of powers compelled his withdrawal in 1513. He was succeeded by his son-in-law, Francis I.

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79. James16 V, King of Scotland (Margaret15 Tudor , Princess of England, Henry14 VII, King of England, Lady Margaret13 Beaufort, John12, John11, John of10 Gaunt , Duke of Lancaster, Edward9 III, King of England, Edward8 II, King of England, Edward7 I, Longshanks, King of England, Henry6 III, King of England, John5 Lackland , King of England, Henry4 II, King of England, Matilda3 Princess of England, Henry2 I, Beauclerc, King of England, William1 I, The Conqueror, King of England, RobertA I, the Devil, 6th Duke of Normandy, RichardB II, The Good, 4th Duke of Normandy, RichardC I, The Fearless, 3rd Duke of Normandy, WilliamD I, Longsword, 2nd Duke of Normandy, Rollo the DaneE Robert , 1st Duke of Normandy, RagnvaldF I, the Wise, Eysteinsson, Earl of More, GlumraG Eystein , the Noisy, Jarl of the Uplands, IvarH Oplaendinge , Jarl of the Uplands of Norway) was born 10 Apr 1512, and died 14 Dec 1542. He married (1) Madeleine de Valois , Princess of France 1537 in Paris, Seine, France, daughter of Francis I, King of France. He married (2) Marie de Guise of Lorraine Bef. 1542.

Notes for James V, King of Scotland:

James V (1512-42), king of Scotland (1513-42), son of King James IV and Margaret Tudor, born in Linlithgow. He was 17 months old when his father was killed. His mother acted as regent until her marriage in 1514 to Archibald, 6th earl of Angus. In that year John Stewart, duke of Albany, became James's protector.

In 1525, during the continued struggle for control of the country, James was taken prisoner by his stepfather. Three years later the king escaped and assumed control of Scotland. He instituted judicial reforms and took measures to protect the peasantry, by whom he was much admired. His uncle, Henry VIII, king of England, tried to induce James to repudiate the authority of the Roman Catholic church, but James refused, and relations between the two countries became strained. War broke out in 1542, and in November the Scottish force was routed at Solway Moss in northern England. Within a month James died. His second marriage, to Marie de Guise Lorraine, brought him three children. Unfortunately both James and Arthur died in infancy. He left one legitimate child, Mary, queen of Scots, who was six days old at his death.

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Child of James and Marie Lorraine is:

+ 90 i. Queen of Scots17 Mary, born 8 Dec 1542 in Linlithgow, Scotland; died 8 Feb 1586/87 in Fotheringay Castle, Northamptonshire, England (beheaded).

80. Margaret16 Douglas (Margaret15 Tudor , Princess of England, Henry14 VII, King of England, Lady Margaret13 Beaufort, John12, John11, John of10 Gaunt , Duke of Lancaster, Edward9 III, King of England, Edward8 II, King of England, Edward7 I, Longshanks, King of England, Henry6 III, King of England, John5 Lackland , King of England, Henry4 II, King of England, Matilda3 Princess of England, Henry2 I, Beauclerc, King of England, William1 I, The Conqueror, King of England, RobertA I, the Devil, 6th Duke of Normandy, RichardB II, The Good, 4th Duke of Normandy, RichardC I, The Fearless, 3rd Duke of Normandy, WilliamD I, Longsword, 2nd Duke of Normandy, Rollo the DaneE Robert , 1st Duke of Normandy, RagnvaldF I, the Wise, Eysteinsson, Earl of More, GlumraG Eystein , the Noisy, Jarl of the Uplands, IvarH Oplaendinge , Jarl of the Uplands of Norway) was born Aft. 1514, and died 1578. She married Matthew Stuart , Earl of Lennox Bef. 1545.

Child of Margaret Douglas and Matthew Stuart is:

+ 91 i. Henry17 Stuart , Lord Darnley, born 1545; died 1567.

84. Frances16 Brandon (Mary15 Tudor, Henry14 VII, King of England, Lady Margaret13 Beaufort, John12, John11, John of10 Gaunt , Duke of Lancaster, Edward9 III, King of England, Edward8 II, King of England, Edward7 I, Longshanks, King of England, Henry6 III, King of England, John5 Lackland , King of England, Henry4 II, King of England, Matilda3 Princess of England, Henry2 I, Beauclerc, King of England, William1 I, The Conqueror, King of England, RobertA I, the Devil, 6th Duke of Normandy, RichardB II, The Good, 4th Duke of Normandy, RichardC I, The Fearless, 3rd Duke of Normandy, WilliamD I, Longsword, 2nd Duke of Normandy, Rollo the DaneE Robert , 1st Duke of Normandy, RagnvaldF I, the Wise, Eysteinsson, Earl of More, GlumraG Eystein , the Noisy, Jarl of the Uplands, IvarH Oplaendinge , Jarl of the Uplands of Norway) was born 16 Jul 1517, and died 1559. She married Henry Grey , Duke of Suffolk Bef. 1537.

Child of Frances Brandon and Henry Grey is:

92 i. Lady Jane17 Grey, born 1537 in Bradgate Park, near Leicester, England; died 12 Feb 1554/55 in Tower of London (beheaded). She married Lord Guilford Dudley 1552.

Notes for Lady Jane Grey:

Grey, Lady Jane (1537-54), queen of England for nine days, born in Bradgate Park, near Leicester, a great-granddaughter of King Henry VII and daughter of Henry Grey, duke of Suffolk and 3rd marquess of Dorset. When Lady Jane was 15 years old, England's powerful lord chamberlain John Dudley, duke of Northumberland, arranged a marriage for her with his son, Guildford Dudley. The duke's purpose was to change, through Lady Jane, the royal succession upon the death of the ailing young king, Edward VI, so that he could continue to control the country through her. Edward approved the marriage and secured witnesses to a deed declaring Lady Jane his successor. Upon the death of the king, on July 6, 1553, Lady Jane was proclaimed queen, but Edward's half sister, Mary Tudor, contested the succession. Lady Jane was subsequently imprisoned in the Tower of London. She and her husband were accused of treason, and both were beheaded on February 12, 1554.

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85. Richard16 Sandford (Hugh15, Richard14, John13, Richard12 de Sandford, Alice11 Botilier, Elizabeth10 de Holand, Maud9 La Zouche, Alan8, Eleanor7 Longespée, Stephen6, William5 de Longespée , Earl of Salisbury, Henry4 II, King of England, Princess of England3 Matilda, Henry2 I, Beauclerc, King of England, William1 I, The Conqueror, King of England, RobertA I, the Devil, 6th Duke of Normandy, RichardB II, The Good, 4th Duke of Normandy, RichardC I, The Fearless, 3rd Duke of Normandy, WilliamD I, Longsword, 2nd Duke of Normandy, Rollo the DaneE Robert , 1st Duke of Normandy, RagnvaldF I, the Wise, Eysteinsson, Earl of More, GlumraG Eystein , the Noisy, Jarl of the Uplands, IvarH Oplaendinge , Jarl of the Uplands of Norway) was born ABT 1490 in Sandford, Shropshire, England, and died Aft. 1533 in Sandford, Shropshire, England. He married Maud Mainwaring ABT 1520.

Child of Richard Sandford and Maud Mainwaring is:

+ 93 i. Richard17 Sandford, born 1533 in Stanstead, Mountfitchet, Essex, England; died 15 Nov 1591 in Stanstead, Mountfitchet, Essex, England.

 


Generation No. 17

90. Queen of Scots17 Mary (James16 V, King of Scotland, Margaret15 Tudor , Princess of England, Henry14 VII, King of England, Lady Margaret13 Beaufort, John12, John11, John of10 Gaunt , Duke of Lancaster, Edward9 III, King of England, Edward8 II, King of England, Edward7 I, Longshanks, King of England, Henry6 III, King of England, John5 Lackland , King of England, Henry4 II, King of England, Matilda3 Princess of England, Henry2 I, Beauclerc, King of England, William1 I, The Conqueror, King of England, RobertA I, the Devil, 6th Duke of Normandy, RichardB II, The Good, 4th Duke of Normandy, RichardC I, The Fearless, 3rd Duke of Normandy, WilliamD I, Longsword, 2nd Duke of Normandy, Rollo the DaneE Robert , 1st Duke of Normandy, RagnvaldF I, the Wise, Eysteinsson, Earl of More, GlumraG Eystein , the Noisy, Jarl of the Uplands, IvarH Oplaendinge , Jarl of the Uplands of Norway) was born 8 Dec 1542 in Linlithgow, Scotland, and died 8 Feb 1586/87 in Fotheringay Castle, Northamptonshire, England (beheaded). She married (1) Francis II, King of France 1558. She married (2) Henry Stuart , Lord Darnley 1565, son of Matthew Stuart and Margaret Douglas. She married (3) James Hepburn , 4th Earl of Bothwell Aft. 1567.

Notes for Queen of Scots Mary:

Mary, Queen of Scots, also Mary Stuart (1542-87), daughter of James V, king of Scotland, by his second wife, Mary of Guise.

Born in Linlithgow in December 1542, Mary became queen before she was a week old. Raised in France, in 1558 she was married to the Dauphin, who succeeded to the French throne as Francis II in 1559 but died the next year. Mary returned to Scotland in 1561. Although Roman Catholic, at first she accepted the Protestant-led government that she found in place. Her chief minister was her half brother James Stuart, whom she soon afterward created earl of Moray.

Mary's marriage in 1565 to her cousin, the Catholic Scottish nobleman Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley, was performed with Roman Catholic rites. The marriage aroused Protestant feelings and was the signal for an insurrection by Moray and a Scottish noble family who hoped to be joined by the whole Protestant party. Their hope was disappointed, however, and the queen, taking the field in person, at once quelled the revolt. Her triumph was scarcely over when misunderstandings began to arise between her and Darnley. She had given him the title of king, but he now demanded that the crown be secured to him for life and that, if the queen died without children, it should descend to his heirs.

Before Moray's rebellion Mary's secretary and adviser had been David Rizzio, a court favorite and a Roman Catholic. The king was now persuaded that Rizzio was the obstacle to his designs upon the crown. Acting on this belief, he entered into a formal compact with Moray; Lord Patrick Ruthven; James Douglas, 4th earl of Morton; and other leaders of the Protestant party. The result of this conspiracy was the murder of Rizzio in 1566. Early in 1567 the house in which Darnley lay sick was blown up by gunpowder, probably at the instigation of the Scottish nobleman James Hepburn, 4th earl of Bothwell, who, since Moray's revolt and still more since Rizzio's murder, had been favored by the queen. Darnley was discovered strangled close by the scene of the explosion. It was suspected that Mary herself was not wholly ignorant of the plot. Evidence substantiating this theory is reflected in incriminating letters and sonnets, allegedly written by Mary to Bothwell and found later that year in a silver casket. Bothwell was brought to a mock trial and acquitted; soon afterward he divorced his wife and married Mary in a Protestant ceremony.

This step at once turned the Scottish nobles against Mary. She was able to lead an army against them, and although it was equal in number to the confederate army, it was visibly inferior in discipline. On June 15, 1567, Mary's forces were defeated at Carberry Hill, and she was forced to abandon Bothwell and surrender herself to the confederate lords. On July 24, at Lochleven, she was prevailed upon to sign an act of abdication in favor of her son, who was crowned as James VI five days afterward at Stirling. Escaping from her island-prison at Lochleven on May 2, 1568, she was able within a few days to assemble an army of 6,000 men. On May 12 her army was defeated by the regent Moray at Langside, near Glasgow. Four days afterward, in spite of the entreaties of her best friends, Mary crossed Solway Firth and sought refuge at the court of Elizabeth I, queen of England, only to find herself a prisoner of Elizabeth for life.

Of the ensuing intrigues to effect her deliverance and to place her on the throne of England, the most famous was that of Mary's page, Anthony Babington, who plotted to assassinate Elizabeth. The conspiracy was discovered, and Mary was brought to trial in October 1586. She was sentenced to death on October 25, but not until February 1, 1587, did Elizabeth sign the warrant of execution, which was carried out a week later.

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Notes for Francis II, King of France:

Francis II (of France) (1544-60), king of France (1559-60), born in Fontainebleau, the eldest son of Henry II. In 1558 Francis married Mary, queen of Scots. Francis was a mental and physical weakling and was dominated by François, duke of Guise, and Cardinal Charles of Lorraine, the uncles of his wife. These two men, who in effect were the rulers during Francis's brief reign, tried to repress the growing political power of the Protestants in France. His death ended the ascendancy of the Guises at court.

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Child of Queen Mary and Henry Stuart is:

+ 94 i. James18 I, King of England, born 19 Jun 1566 in Edinburgh Castle, Scotland; died 27 Mar 1625 in Theobalds, Hertfordshire, England.

91. Henry17 Stuart , Lord Darnley (Margaret16 Douglas, Margaret15 Tudor , Princess of England, Henry14 VII, King of England, Lady Margaret13 Beaufort, John12, John11, John of10 Gaunt , Duke of Lancaster, Edward9 III, King of England, Edward8 II, King of England, Edward7 I, Longshanks, King of England, Henry6 III, King of England, John5 Lackland , King of England, Henry4 II, King of England, Matilda3 Princess of England, Henry2 I, Beauclerc, King of England, William1 I, The Conqueror, King of England, RobertA I, the Devil, 6th Duke of Normandy, RichardB II, The Good, 4th Duke of Normandy, RichardC I, The Fearless, 3rd Duke of Normandy, WilliamD I, Longsword, 2nd Duke of Normandy, Rollo the DaneE Robert , 1st Duke of Normandy, RagnvaldF I, the Wise, Eysteinsson, Earl of More, GlumraG Eystein , the Noisy, Jarl of the Uplands, IvarH Oplaendinge , Jarl of the Uplands of Norway) was born 1545, and died 1567. He married Queen of Scots Mary 1565, daughter of James and Marie Lorraine.

Notes for Queen of Scots Mary:

Mary, Queen of Scots, also Mary Stuart (1542-87), daughter of James V, king of Scotland, by his second wife, Mary of Guise.

Born in Linlithgow in December 1542, Mary became queen before she was a week old. Raised in France, in 1558 she was married to the Dauphin, who succeeded to the French throne as Francis II in 1559 but died the next year. Mary returned to Scotland in 1561. Although Roman Catholic, at first she accepted the Protestant-led government that she found in place. Her chief minister was her half brother James Stuart, whom she soon afterward created earl of Moray.

Mary's marriage in 1565 to her cousin, the Catholic Scottish nobleman Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley, was performed with Roman Catholic rites. The marriage aroused Protestant feelings and was the signal for an insurrection by Moray and a Scottish noble family who hoped to be joined by the whole Protestant party. Their hope was disappointed, however, and the queen, taking the field in person, at once quelled the revolt. Her triumph was scarcely over when misunderstandings began to arise between her and Darnley. She had given him the title of king, but he now demanded that the crown be secured to him for life and that, if the queen died without children, it should descend to his heirs.

Before Moray's rebellion Mary's secretary and adviser had been David Rizzio, a court favorite and a Roman Catholic. The king was now persuaded that Rizzio was the obstacle to his designs upon the crown. Acting on this belief, he entered into a formal compact with Moray; Lord Patrick Ruthven; James Douglas, 4th earl of Morton; and other leaders of the Protestant party. The result of this conspiracy was the murder of Rizzio in 1566. Early in 1567 the house in which Darnley lay sick was blown up by gunpowder, probably at the instigation of the Scottish nobleman James Hepburn, 4th earl of Bothwell, who, since Moray's revolt and still more since Rizzio's murder, had been favored by the queen. Darnley was discovered strangled close by the scene of the explosion. It was suspected that Mary herself was not wholly ignorant of the plot. Evidence substantiating this theory is reflected in incriminating letters and sonnets, allegedly written by Mary to Bothwell and found later that year in a silver casket. Bothwell was brought to a mock trial and acquitted; soon afterward he divorced his wife and married Mary in a Protestant ceremony.

This step at once turned the Scottish nobles against Mary. She was able to lead an army against them, and although it was equal in number to the confederate army, it was visibly inferior in discipline. On June 15, 1567, Mary's forces were defeated at Carberry Hill, and she was forced to abandon Bothwell and surrender herself to the confederate lords. On July 24, at Lochleven, she was prevailed upon to sign an act of abdication in favor of her son, who was crowned as James VI five days afterward at Stirling. Escaping from her island-prison at Lochleven on May 2, 1568, she was able within a few days to assemble an army of 6,000 men. On May 12 her army was defeated by the regent Moray at Langside, near Glasgow. Four days afterward, in spite of the entreaties of her best friends, Mary crossed Solway Firth and sought refuge at the court of Elizabeth I, queen of England, only to find herself a prisoner of Elizabeth for life.

Of the ensuing intrigues to effect her deliverance and to place her on the throne of England, the most famous was that of Mary's page, Anthony Babington, who plotted to assassinate Elizabeth. The conspiracy was discovered, and Mary was brought to trial in October 1586. She was sentenced to death on October 25, but not until February 1, 1587, did Elizabeth sign the warrant of execution, which was carried out a week later.

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Child of Henry Stuart and Queen Mary is:

+ 95 i. James18 I, King of England, born 19 Jun 1566 in Edinburgh Castle, Scotland; died 27 Mar 1625 in Theobalds, Hertfordshire, England.

93. Richard17 Sandford (Richard16, Hugh15, Richard14, John13, Richard12 de Sandford, Alice11 Botilier, Elizabeth10 de Holand, Maud9 La Zouche, Alan8, Eleanor7 Longespée, Stephen6, William5 de Longespée , Earl of Salisbury, Henry4 II, King of England, Princess of England3 Matilda, Henry2 I, Beauclerc, King of England, William1 I, The Conqueror, King of England, RobertA I, the Devil, 6th Duke of Normandy, RichardB II, The Good, 4th Duke of Normandy, RichardC I, The Fearless, 3rd Duke of Normandy, WilliamD I, Longsword, 2nd Duke of Normandy, Rollo the DaneE Robert , 1st Duke of Normandy, RagnvaldF I, the Wise, Eysteinsson, Earl of More, GlumraG Eystein , the Noisy, Jarl of the Uplands, IvarH Oplaendinge , Jarl of the Uplands of Norway) was born 1533 in Stanstead, Mountfitchet, Essex, England, and died 15 Nov 1591 in Stanstead, Mountfitchet, Essex, England. He married Elizabeth Sandford ??? 1558 in Much Hadham, Hertfordshire, England.

Child of Richard Sandford and Elizabeth ??? is:

+ 96 i. Thomas18 Sanford, born 1556 in Stansted, Mountfitchet, Essex, ENG; died 6 Apr 1597 in Much Haddam, Hertfordshire, ENG.

 


Generation No. 18

95. James18 I, King of England (Henry17 Stuart , Lord Darnley, Margaret16 Douglas, Margaret15 Tudor , Princess of England, Henry14 VII, King of England, Lady Margaret13 Beaufort, John12, John11, John of10 Gaunt , Duke of Lancaster, Edward9 III, King of England, Edward8 II, King of England, Edward7 I, Longshanks, King of England, Henry6 III, King of England, John5 Lackland , King of England, Henry4 II, King of England, Matilda3 Princess of England, Henry2 I, Beauclerc, King of England, William1 I, The Conqueror, King of England, RobertA I, the Devil, 6th Duke of Normandy, RichardB II, The Good, 4th Duke of Normandy, RichardC I, The Fearless, 3rd Duke of Normandy, WilliamD I, Longsword, 2nd Duke of Normandy, Rollo the DaneE Robert , 1st Duke of Normandy, RagnvaldF I, the Wise, Eysteinsson, Earl of More, GlumraG Eystein , the Noisy, Jarl of the Uplands, IvarH Oplaendinge , Jarl of the Uplands of Norway) was born 19 Jun 1566 in Edinburgh Castle, Scotland, and died 27 Mar 1625 in Theobalds, Hertfordshire, England. He married Anne of Denmark 1589.

Notes for James I, King of England:

James I (of England) (1566-1625), king of England (1603-25) and, as James VI, king of Scotland (1567-1625).

Born on June 19, 1566, in Edinburgh Castle, Scotland, James was the only son of Mary, queen of Scots, and her second husband, Lord Darnley. When Mary was forced to abdicate in 1567, he was proclaimed king of Scotland. A succession of regents ruled the kingdom until 1576, when James became nominal ruler. The boy king was little more than a puppet in the hands of political intriguers until 1581. In that year, with the aid of his favorites, James Stuart, earl of Arran, and Esmé Stuart, duke of Lennox, James assumed actual rule of Scotland. Scotland was at that time divided domestically by conflict between the Protestants and the Roman Catholics, and in foreign affairs by those favoring an alliance with France and those supporting England. In 1582 James was kidnapped by a group of Protestant nobles headed by William Ruthven, earl of Gowrie, and was held virtual prisoner until he escaped the next year.

In 1586, by the Treaty of Berwick, James formed an alliance with his cousin, Queen Elizabeth I of England, and the following year, after the execution of his mother, he succeeded in reducing the power of the great Roman Catholic nobles. His marriage to Anne of Denmark in 1589 brought him for a time into close relationship with the Protestants. He had six children: Henry, Frederick (died 1612), Elizabeth, Margaret (died young), Charles, Robert, Mary and Sophia. After the Gowrie conspiracy of 1600, James repressed the Protestants as strongly as he had the Catholics. He replaced the feudal power of the nobility with a strong central government, and maintaining the divine right of kings, he enforced the superiority of the state over the church.

In 1603 Queen Elizabeth died childless, and James succeeded her as James I, the first Stuart king of England. In 1604 he ended England's war with Spain, but his tactless attitude toward Parliament, based on his belief in divine right, led to prolonged conflict with that body. James convoked the Hampton Court Conference (1604), at which he authorized a new translation of the Bible, generally called the King James Version. His undue severity toward Roman Catholics, however, led to the abortive Gunpowder Plot in 1605. James tried unsuccessfully to advance the cause of religious peace in Europe, giving his daughter Elizabeth in marriage to the elector of the Palatinate, Frederick V, the leader of the German Protestants. He also sought to end the conflict by attempting to arrange a marriage between his son, Charles, and the infanta of Spain, then the principal Catholic power. When he was rebuffed, he formed an alliance with France and declared war on Spain, thus contributing to the flames he had tried to quench. James I died at the Theobalds in Hertfordshire on March 27, 1625, and was succeeded to the throne by his son, Charles I.

Funk & Wagnall's Encyclopedia

Children of James and Anne Denmark are:

97 i. Henry19 Frederick , Prince of Wales, born 1594; died 1612.

+ 98 ii. Elizabeth of Bohemia, born 1596; died 1662.

+ 99 iii. Charles I, King of England, born 19 Nov 1600 in Dunfermline, Scotland; died 30 Jan 1649/50 in Whitehall Palace, London (beheaded).

96. Thomas18 Sanford (Richard17 Sandford, Richard16, Hugh15, Richard14, John13, Richard12 de Sandford, Alice11 Botilier, Elizabeth10 de Holand, Maud9 La Zouche, Alan8, Eleanor7 Longespée, Stephen6, William5 de Longespée , Earl of Salisbury, Henry4 II, King of England, Princess of England3 Matilda, Henry2 I, Beauclerc, King of England, William1 I, The Conqueror, King of England, RobertA I, the Devil, 6th Duke of Normandy, RichardB II, The Good, 4th Duke of Normandy, RichardC I, The Fearless, 3rd Duke of Normandy, WilliamD I, Longsword, 2nd Duke of Normandy, Rollo the DaneE Robert , 1st Duke of Normandy, RagnvaldF I, the Wise, Eysteinsson, Earl of More, GlumraG Eystein , the Noisy, Jarl of the Uplands, IvarH Oplaendinge , Jarl of the Uplands of Norway) was born 1556 in Stansted, Mountfitchet, Essex, ENG, and died 6 Apr 1597 in Much Haddam, Hertfordshire, ENG. He married (1) Eve Friswith Bef. 1580. He married (2) Mary Mellett Lewes 21 Sep 1581 in Much Haddam, Hertfordshire, ENG, daughter of John Lewis and Alice Chervell.

Notes for Thomas Sanford:

Thomas Sanford was not only a successful man, but a thoughtful, sagacious man, deeply interested in his family's welfare. He wisely educted his children, well knowing they would do the same with their children. His will indicated him to be an active, enterprising citizen, and bore his part in public matters, though he did not achieve distinction in a political way. (Source: Thomas Sanford Genealogy, c., 1911, p. 78)

Much Hadham, a parish in the hundred of Edwinstree, county of Hertford, 4¼ miles (W.S.W.) from Bishop's Stortford, containing 1208 inhabitants. The living is a rectory with Little Hadham, within the peculiar jurisdiction of the Commissary of Essex and Herts, concurrently with the Consistorial Court of the Bishop of London, rated in the king's books at £66.13.4., and in the patronage of the Bishop of London. The church is dedicated to St. Andrew. The Independents have a place of worship here. There is a small endowment for the education of six boys and six girls. Here are the remains of a palace belonging to the Bishops of London, now a private residence. Dr. John Owen, an eminent non-conformist divine, was born at this place in 1616. (Source: A Topographical Dictionary of England, p.290)

Children of Thomas Sanford and Mary Lewes are:

+ 100 i. Ezekiel19 Sanford, born 20 Feb 1585/86 in Stanstead, Essex Co., England; died ABT 1683 in Stanstead, Essex Co., England.

101 ii. Priscilla Sanford, born 17 Mar 1587/88 in Much Hadham, Hertfordshire, England; died Unknown in Much Hadham, Hertfordshire, England. She married Thomas Howe 30 Sep 1609.

102 iii. Zachary Sanford, born 9 Aug 1590 in Much Hadham, Hertfordshire, England; died 9 Jan 1677/78.

103 iv. Sarah Sanford, born 24 Sep 1592 in Much Hadham, Hertfordshire, England; died Nov 1616. She married ??? Howe 1615.

104 v. Damaris Sanford, born 1594 in Much Hadham, Hertfordshire, England; died 22 Nov 1616.

 


Generation No. 19

98. Elizabeth of19 Bohemia (James18 I, King of England, Henry17 Stuart , Lord Darnley, Margaret16 Douglas, Margaret15 Tudor , Princess of England, Henry14 VII, King of England, Lady Margaret13 Beaufort, John12, John11, John of10 Gaunt , Duke of Lancaster, Edward9 III, King of England, Edward8 II, King of England, Edward7 I, Longshanks, King of England, Henry6 III, King of England, John5 Lackland , King of England, Henry4 II, King of England, Matilda3 Princess of England, Henry2 I, Beauclerc, King of England, William1 I, The Conqueror, King of England, RobertA I, the Devil, 6th Duke of Normandy, RichardB II, The Good, 4th Duke of Normandy, RichardC I, The Fearless, 3rd Duke of Normandy, WilliamD I, Longsword, 2nd Duke of Normandy, Rollo the DaneE Robert , 1st Duke of Normandy, RagnvaldF I, the Wise, Eysteinsson, Earl of More, GlumraG Eystein , the Noisy, Jarl of the Uplands, IvarH Oplaendinge , Jarl of the Uplands of Norway) was born 1596, and died 1662. She married Frederick V, King of Bohemia 1613.

Child of Elizabeth Bohemia and Frederick is:

105 i. Sophia of20 Hanover, born 1630; died 1714. She married Ernest Augustus , Elector of Hanover 1658.

99. Charles19 I, King of England (James18 I, King of England, Henry17 Stuart , Lord Darnley, Margaret16 Douglas, Margaret15 Tudor , Princess of England, Henry14 VII, King of England, Lady Margaret13 Beaufort, John12, John11, John of10 Gaunt , Duke of Lancaster, Edward9 III, King of England, Edward8 II, King of England, Edward7 I, Longshanks, King of England, Henry6 III, King of England, John5 Lackland , King of England, Henry4 II, King of England, Matilda3 Princess of England, Henry2 I, Beauclerc, King of England, William1 I, The Conqueror, King of England, RobertA I, the Devil, 6th Duke of Normandy, RichardB II, The Good, 4th Duke of Normandy, RichardC I, The Fearless, 3rd Duke of Normandy, WilliamD I, Longsword, 2nd Duke of Normandy, Rollo the DaneE Robert , 1st Duke of Normandy, RagnvaldF I, the Wise, Eysteinsson, Earl of More, GlumraG Eystein , the Noisy, Jarl of the Uplands, IvarH Oplaendinge , Jarl of the Uplands of Norway) was born 19 Nov 1600 in Dunfermline, Scotland, and died 30 Jan 1649/50 in Whitehall Palace, London (beheaded). He married Henrietta Maria of France 1625, daughter of Henry IV, King of France.

Notes for Charles I, King of England:

Charles I (of England) (1600-1649), king of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1625-1649), who was deposed and executed during the English Revolution.

Charles was born in Dunfermline, Scotland. The second son of James I, Charles became heir apparent when his elder brother, Henry, died, and was made prince of Wales in 1616. In 1623, during the Thirty Years' War, Charles visited Spain to negotiate his proposed marriage with the daughter of the Spanish king. The proposal had been made in order to effect an alliance between Spain and England. When it became apparent, however, that the Spanish had no intention of concluding such an alliance, negotiations were begun for his marriage to the French princess Henrietta Maria, and England formed an alliance with France against Spain. In 1625 Charles succeeded to the throne and married Henrietta Maria, but his marriage aroused the ill will of his Protestant subjects because she was Roman Catholic.

Charles believed in the divine right of kings and in the authority of the Church of England. These beliefs soon brought him into conflict with Parliament and ultimately led to civil war. He came under the influence of his close friend George Villiers, 1st duke of Buckingham, whom he appointed his chief minister in defiance of public opinion and whose war schemes in Spain and France ended ignominiously. Charles convoked and dissolved three Parliaments in four years because they refused to comply with his arbitrary measures including the demand that his subjects pay for military expenditures and imprisoning those who did not pay. When the third Parliament met in 1628, it presented the Petition of Right, a statement demanding that Charles make certain reforms in exchange for war funds. Charles was forced to accept the petition. However, in 1629, Charles dismissed Parliament and had several parliamentary leaders imprisoned. Charles governed without a Parliament for the next 11 years. During this time forced loans, poundage, tonnage, ship money, and other extraordinary financial measures were sanctioned to meet governmental expenses.

In 1637 Charles's attempt to impose the Anglican liturgy in Scotland led to rioting by Presbyterian Scots. Charles was unable to quell the revolt, and in 1640 he convoked the so-called Short Parliament to raise an army and necessary funds. This body, which sat for one month (April-May), refused his demands, drew up a statement of public grievances, and insisted on peace with Scotland. Obtaining money by irregular means, Charles advanced against the Scots, who crossed the border, routed his army at Newburn, and soon afterward occupied Newcastle and Durham.

His money exhausted, the king was compelled to call his fifth Parliament, the Long Parliament, in 1640. Led by John Pym, it proceeded against the two chief royal advisers, the archbishop of Canterbury, William Laud, and Sir Thomas Wentworth, 1st earl of Strafford. Parliament secured the imprisonment and subsequent executions of both men. In 1641 Charles agreed to bills abolishing the prerogative courts, prohibiting arbitrary taxation, and ensuring that this Parliament would not be dissolved without its own permission. The king also agreed to more religious liberties for the Scots. Soon after, Charles was implicated in a plot to murder the leaders of the Covenanters, a Scottish group devoted to maintaining Presbyterianism. When Charles visited Scotland in August 1641, he promised Archibald Campbell, 8th earl of Argyll, a Covenanter leader, that he would submit to the demands of the Scottish Parliament.

While still in Scotland, the king received word of a rebellion in Ireland in which thousands of English colonists were massacred. When he returned to London in November, he tried to have Parliament raise an army, under his control, to put down the Irish revolt. Parliament, fearing that the army would be used against itself, refused, and issued the Grand Remonstrance, a list of reform demands, including the right of Parliament to approve the king's ministers. Charles appeared in the House of Commons with an armed force and tried to arrest Pym and four members. The country was aroused, and the king fled with his family from London.

Both sides then raised armies. The supporters of Parliament were called Roundheads, and those of the king, Cavaliers. The first civil war of the English Revolution, now inevitable, began at Edgehill on October 23, 1642. The Cavaliers were initially successful, but after a series of reverses Charles gave himself up to the Scottish army on May 5, 1646. Having refused to accept Presbyterianism, he was delivered in June 1647 to the English Parliament. Later he escaped to the Isle of Wight but was imprisoned there. By this time a serious division had occurred between Parliament and its army. The army's leader, Oliver Cromwell and his supporters, the Independents, compelled Parliament to pass an act of treason against further negotiation with the king.

Eventually, the moderate Parliamentarians were forcibly ejected by the Independents, and the remaining legislators, who formed the so-called Rump Parliament, appointed a court to try the king. On January 20, 1649, the trial began in Westminster Hall. Charles denied the legality of the court and refused to plead. On January 27 he was sentenced to death as a tyrant, murderer, and enemy of the nation. Scotland protested, the royal family entreated, and France and the Netherlands interceded, in vain. Charles was beheaded at Whitehall, London. Subsequently Oliver Cromwell became chairman of the council of state, a parliamentary agency that governed England as a republic until the restoration of the monarchy in 1660.

Funk & Wagnall's Encyclopedia

Children of Charles and Henrietta France are:

106 i. Charles20 II, King of England, born 29 May 1630 in London, England; died 1 Feb 1685/86. He married Catherine of Braganza 1662.

Notes for Charles II, King of England:

Charles II (of England) (1630-85), king of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1660-85), whose reign marked a period of relative stability after the upheaval of the English Revolution.

Charles was born in London on May 29, 1630. He was the second, but eldest surviving, son of King Charles I and was prince of Wales from birth. He took his seat in the House of Lords in 1641 and held a nominal military command in the early campaigns of the first civil war of the English Revolution. He later fled from England and went into exile at The Hague, the Netherlands, from where he made two attempts to save his father. On the execution of Charles I in 1649, Charles II assumed the title of king and was so proclaimed in Scotland and sections of Ireland, and in England, then ruled by Oliver Cromwell. After an acknowledgment of the faults of his father, Charles accepted the Scottish crown on January 1, 1651, at Scone from the Scottish noble Archibald Campbell, 8th earl of Argyll. He invaded England the following August with 10,000 men and was proclaimed king at Carlisle and other places along his route. His army, however, was routed by Cromwell at Worcester on September 3, 1651. After this battle Charles fled to France.

He spent eight years in poverty and dissipation while in exile on the Continent. In 1658, following the death of Cromwell and the succession of his son, Richard, as Lord Protector, the demand for the restoration of royalty increased. In February 1660, General George Monck led an army into London and forced the Rump Parliament to dissolve. In April, in the Declaration of Breda, Charles announced his intention to accept a parliamentary government and to grant amnesty to his political opponents. A new Parliament requested Charles to return and proclaimed him king on May 8, 1660. He landed at Dover on May 26 and was welcomed at Whitehall by Parliament three days later.

Charles was crowned on April 23, 1661. Noted for subservience and insistence on royal prerogative, his first Parliament was overwhelmingly Royalist and gave him free rein. Edward Hyde, 1st earl of Clarendon, his companion in exile, was appointed chief minister. Clarendon restored the supremacy of the Church of England, and English and Scottish Nonconformists and Presbyterians were persecuted contrary to the Declaration of Breda. Extravagant and always in want of money, Charles assented to the abolition of the feudal rights of knight service, wardship, and purveyance in consideration of a large annuity that, however, was never fully paid. On May 20, 1662, he married the Portuguese princess Catherine of Braganza for her large dowry. The failure of Parliament to produce the amount agreed on and the chronic mismanagement of the English finances brought the king to a desperate need of money. In return for subsidies from Louis XIV of France, Charles formed a secret alliance with that country; in 1672 that alliance plunged England into a war with the Netherlands.

The war was popular. Commercial and colonial rivalry had already brought about two wars between the two countries, the last one occurring between 1665 and 1667. The Dutch War of 1672 resulted in the English acquisition of the Dutch colony of New Netherland (now New York). Knowledge of his negotiations with France, together with his efforts to become an absolute ruler, brought Charles into conflict with Parliament, which, buoyed by French subsidies, he dissolved in 1681. The struggle was heightened by enactment of the anti-Catholic Test Acts and by the so-called popish plot fabricated by Titus Oates. From 1681 until his death on February 6, 1685, Charles ruled without Parliament. Although a member of the Anglican church, Charles received the last rites of the Roman Catholic church. He was succeeded by his brother James II.

Funk & Wagnall's Encyclopedia

107 ii. Princess Royal Mary, born 1631; died 1660. She married William II, Prince of Orange 1642.

108 iii. James II, King of England, born 14 Oct 1633 in London, England; died 6 Sep 1701 in Saint-Germain-en-Laye, France. He married (1) Anne Hyde 1660. He married (2) Mary Beatrice of Modena 1673.

Notes for James II, King of England:

James II (of England and Ireland) (1633-1701), king of England, Scotland, and Ireland (1685-1688).

James was born in London, the second surviving son of King Charles I and his consort, Henrietta Maria. He was created duke of York and Albany in 1634. After the execution of his father, he was taken to the Continent, and in 1657 he entered the Spanish service in the war against England. At the restoration of the monarchy in 1660, his brother became king as Charles II, and James was made lord high admiral of England. That year he married Anne Hyde, daughter of Edward Hyde, earl of Clarendon. In 1672, a year after Anne's death, James publicly professed his conversion to the Roman Catholic faith. The next year the English Parliament passed the Test Acts disqualifying Catholics from holding office, and James resigned as lord high admiral. Shortly after, he married Mary Beatrice of Modena, a Roman Catholic. In 1679 the House of Commons unsuccessfully attempted to bar James from the throne.

On the death of Charles in 1685, James became king. In the same year he crushed a revolt in England by his nephew, James Scott, duke of Monmouth, and another in Scotland led by Archibald Campbell, 9th earl of Argyll. James alienated many supporters by his severe reprisals, especially by a series of repressive trials, the Bloody Assizes. James attempted to win the support of the Dissenters and the Roman Catholics in 1687 by ending religious restrictions, but instead increased the religious tensions. The birth of his son, James Francis Edward Stuart, on June 10, 1688, seemed to ensure a Roman Catholic succession. James' opponents were against the Roman Catholic succession and asked William of Orange, later William III, to take the English throne, thus touching off the Glorious Revolution. The Glorious Revolution was successful and bloodless; it created a constitutional monarchy aimed at limiting the arbitrary actions of the monarch and increasing the power of Parliament. William landed in England in November 1688 and marched on London. He was hailed as a deliverer, and James, deserted by his troops, fled to France, where he was aided by King Louis XIV. In 1690, with a small body of French troops, James landed in Ireland in an attempt to regain his throne. He was defeated in the Battle of the Boyne and returned to France, where he remained in Saint-Germain-en-Laye until his death. After James was forced into exile, William and his wife, Mary II, ruled England as joint sovereigns.

Funk & Wagnall's Encyclopedia

109 iv. Duke of Gloucester Henry, born 1640; died 1660.

100. Ezekiel19 Sanford (Thomas18, Richard17 Sandford, Richard16, Hugh15, Richard14, John13, Richard12 de Sandford, Alice11 Botilier, Elizabeth10 de Holand, Maud9 La Zouche, Alan8, Eleanor7 Longespée, Stephen6, William5 de Longespée , Earl of Salisbury, Henry4 II, King of England, Princess of England3 Matilda, Henry2 I, Beauclerc, King of England, William1 I, The Conqueror, King of England, RobertA I, the Devil, 6th Duke of Normandy, RichardB II, The Good, 4th Duke of Normandy, RichardC I, The Fearless, 3rd Duke of Normandy, WilliamD I, Longsword, 2nd Duke of Normandy, Rollo the DaneE Robert , 1st Duke of Normandy, RagnvaldF I, the Wise, Eysteinsson, Earl of More, GlumraG Eystein , the Noisy, Jarl of the Uplands, IvarH Oplaendinge , Jarl of the Uplands of Norway) was born 20 Feb 1585/86 in Stanstead, Essex Co., England, and died ABT 1683 in Stanstead, Essex Co., England. He married Rose Warner 1607 in Hatfield, Broad Oak, Hertfordshire, Emgland, daughter of John Warner and Mary Purchase.

Children of Ezekiel Sanford and Rose Warner are:

110 i. Thomas Andrew20 Sanford, born 1608 in Hatfield, Broad Oaks, Essex, England; died 9 Oct 1681 in Milford, New Haven Co., CT. He married (1) Dorthea Meadows Sep 1629 in Herts, England. He married (2) Sarah Meadows 1636 in Dorchester, Suffolk Co., MA.

Notes for Thomas Andrew Sanford:

Thomas Sanford (1-1) first appeared in the Town Records of Dorchester, Massachusetts. Dorchester was settled in 1630, but no lands were allotted until 3 April 1633. It is now a part of Boston and called South Boston and Dorchester. The town records begin 16 Jan 1632. The first settlers were prior to 1636 were one hundred and thirty eight in number, and Thomas Sanford was one of them. He was made a Freeman on 9 March 1637. This right or title conferred upon the holder the right of suffrage and also an advantage in the division of lands. The principal qualification for this position was church membership in a Congregational church. Much reference is made in the notes as to the term "freeman". A freeman was required to be of godly walk and conversation, required to be at least twenty years of age, to take the Freeman's Oath of allegiance to the government of Massachusetts, to be worth £200, to hold office if elected or pay a fine of forty shillings, to vote at all elections or pay same fine.

He was allotted land in Dorchester in 1635. He entered into an agreement to look after the town cows for the season of 1635 and 1637. It is believed that he married in Dorchester and this his first two children were born there. It is also believed that he stayed there until after April, 1640, when the parcel of land was granted to him that had been previously only "booked" to him. He was surely in Milford in January, 1642, when he joined the church. His third child, Mary, is recorded in the records of the First Church of Milford as having been born in January 1641.

Milford land records indicate that he was allotted land there beginning in 1643. His name appears in other instances over the years as late as 1680. They indicate that he bore his part and was held in the good opinion of this neighbors, that he was a frugal and industrious citizen, which was shown by the amount of his estate, appraised 21 Oct 1681, soon after his death at over £450. Two of his sons, Ezekiel and Samuel became quite wealthy for those times. Records indicate that he could read, write, and "cast accompts (accounts)." His will shows him to have been a prosperous, successful man, of a kindly and generous nature and of exceptional character.

Thomas Sanford Genealogy

c., 1911, pp. 60-82

Thomas Sanford arrived in the colonies with his younger brother Andrew and his uncle, Andrew Warner, in 1632 at Dorchester, Massachusetts. He sailed on the ship Arabella as part of the Winthrop Fleet. Many ships over many months came as a part of that activity. He, one brother and their uncle, traveled as single men. He married Dorothea Meadows in Dorchester and they had two children. She died shortly after. He married Sarah Meadows and they set out for Hartford, Connecticut, where some of his relatives had settled, then went on to Milford, Connecticut, where they made their home and had more children. They became an important part of that community by owning property and being very active in both church and civic affairs. They were considered among the founders of Milford, Connecticut. All but the first two children were born at Milford and the parents were buried there. He was married to Sarah Meadows in 1641 in Dorchester. There are no stones marking their graves. The oldest stone marker is 1726, Mrs. Samuel Sanford. Maid Sara Whitlock is mentioned in his will. (Source: Elizabeth Wallace)

John Sanford, San Jose, CA (June, 1996)

Additional information on the ancestors of Thomas Sanford is located on Brøderbund World Family Tree, Volume 8, Pedigree #3331. This provides a vital link to Nicholas deSandford and his spouse, Alice Botilier. Alice is a descendant of Henry II, King of England, and links the Sanford family with the royal families of the United Kingdom and other royal families on the continent.

Dennis BeMent (August, 1997)

An excellent published record of the Sanford Family in America is available in some libraries entitled: Thomas Sanford Genealogy - The Emigrant to New England, 1610-1910 by Carlton E. Sanford, Potsdam, New York; c., 1911, The Tuttle Company, Rutland, Vermont. This is a two volume set consisting of 1612 pages and over 18,000 Sanford descendants. One known set is located at the Orlando Public Library, Orlando, Florida. Reference numbers are included for many of the descendants as assigned from the original publication. In order to provide an efficient reference to that publication the following is an interpretation of that reference: 4-141/110 would indicate David Sanford, who was of the fourth generation, individual #141, with the first reference of him in the original publication located on page 110. A reprint of the above 1911 book is aslo available from the Higginson Book Company in Salem, Massachusetts.

There appears to be considerable confusion in ascertaining all of the pertinent information on Thomas as there were other Sanford's that emigrated to American and many others by the name Thomas. The author of the book, Carlton E. Sanford, indicates that Thomas' first two (of seven) children were born in Dorchester and the other five in Milford. He does not, however, acknowledge that the first two children were from a first wife as indicated in some later records. Carlton Sanford indicates that Thomas was not a part of the Winthrop Fleet. Later records indicate that he was in fact part of one of those crossings.

Dennis BeMent (November, 1997)

111 ii. John Sanford, born 1609 in Hatfield, Broad Oaks, England; died 5 Sep 1679 in Stanstead, Essex Co., England. He married Olive Olin.

112 iii. Ezekiel Sanford, born 26 Dec 1612 in Stanstead, Essex, England; died 5 Sep 1678. He married Rebecca Wiekle Apr 1665 in Stansted, Essex, England.

113 iv. Robert Sanford, born Bef. 1 Nov 1615 in Stanstead, Essex, England; died Jun 1676 in Hartford, Hartford Co., CT. He married Anne Greenhill 1643 in Hartford, Hartford Co., CT.

114 v. Andrew Sanford, born 1 Nov 1617 in Stanstead, Essex, England; died Sep 1684 in Milford, New Haven Co., CT. He married (1) Mary Sanford ??? Aft. 1641 in Milford, New Haven Co., CT. He married (2) Hester Wakefield Aft. 13 Jun 1662.

Notes for Andrew Sanford:

Andrew Sanford settled in Harford, CT., where his uncle Andrew Warner lived. Freeman, May 1657. His first wife, Mary, was indicted with him for witchcraft; she was convicted, 13 June 1662, and presumably executed.

He removed to Milford, CT. in 1667, and married a second time. He had five children by his first wife and seven by his second wife.

History and Genealogy of the Families of Old Fairfield

by Donald Lines Jacobus, c., 1930, pp. 516-517

115 vi. Samuel Sanford, born 25 Nov 1619 in Stanstead, Essex, England; died 5 Dec 1619 in England.

116 vii. Mary Sanford, born 13 Feb 1621/22 in Stanstead, Essex, England; died Unknown.

117 viii. Jonathan Sanford, born 18 Jan 1622/23 in Stanstead, Essex, England; died Unknown.

118 ix. Zachary Sanford, born ABT 1625 in Stansted, Mountfitchet, Essex, England; died 23 Dec 1668 in Saybrook, Middlesex Co., CT. He married Hannah Rockwell 1653 in Saybrook, Middlesex Co., CT.

119 x. Nathaniel Sanford, born ABT 1627 in Atansted, Essex, England; died 1687. He married (1) Susannah (Clark) Kelly ABT 1650. He married (2) Hannah Rockwell Aft. 1669.

NEXT - to continue on to Thomas Sanford and his descendants.

This report was last updated on January 25, 1998


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